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"Problems of Ukrainian Terminology"
Yuzhakova O. Teaching dictionary at a higher educational establishment: place, role, and principles of compiling // Website of TC STTS: Herald of L'viv Polynechnic National University "Problems of Ukrainian Terminology". – 2013. – # 765.
The article are presented in the authors' edition
Odessa National Academy for Food Technologies
TEACHING DICTIONARY AT A HIGHER EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENT:
PLACE, ROLE AND PRINCIPLES OF COMPILING
© Yuzhakova O., 2013.
У статті розглянено проблему укладання навчального термінологічного словника, який би в освітньому процесі сприяв формуванню цілісного світогляду майбутнього фахівця, виробленню в нього системного підходу до аналізу будь-яких явищ дійсності; крім того, подано пропозиції щодо засад укладання та організації макро- і мікроструктури такого словника.
Ключові слова: українська мова, термінологія, лексикографія, навчальний словник, словникова стаття, макро- і мікроструктура словника.
The article considers the problems of compiling a teaching terminological dictionary that would contribute to formation of the integral outlook of the professional to-be at the educational process as well as developing his system approach to analysis of any phenomena. Furthermore, suggestions are made concerning the principles of compiling and organising macro- and microstructures of the dictionary.
Keywords: Ukrainian language, terminology, lexicography, teaching dictionary, dictionary entry, dictionary macro- and microstructure.
At present the up-to-date educational field recognises as the main trend the one aimed at developing the students’ system thinking and formation on its basis the world outlook grounded on personal realisation of global problems of humanity through insight and intuitive cognition of the world which as the scholars are convinced can be accomplished by means of certain rearrangement of educational material. This restructuring would contribute to integrating of teaching, strengthening communications between the subjects, it would enhance the basic preparation of the students which would help them to single out «the basic invariant part of its contents that they would be able to use on a new level while studying other disciplines after they themselves have mastered and restructured it» in a certain discipline [11, р. 166].
Taking into account that the contents of every course stems from the basic knowledge, all courses contain to some degree common topics that are considered in various aspects with regard to specialisation, the students’ age e t. c., therefore it may be deemed reasonable to arrange disciplines in blocks that would firs of all, contribute to development of intersubject communications. Furthermore, lately the scholars have been recommending to start studying every course with representation of a number of notions that make up its content core [11, р. 166]. For this purpose, in our opinion it is essential that the teaching dictionary in any discipline and/or a block of related subjects should be arranged properly with specific notions being clearly singled out in it at the same time, if possible, displaying their interdependency and subordination that in its turn would give the student certain guidelines from the first class, which would both give him/her the opportunity to consolidate the new and the known material in a coherent integral system and create the prerequisites for contrasting with the earlier knowledge and become the basis for elaborating the system approach applied in exploration of any phenomena.
However there is another aspect in this matter. Despite the fact that a lot of dictionaries for different branches have been published in Ukraine by the publishers specialised in teaching, teaching and reference and applied teaching literature (e. g. the Dictionary of Labour by N. V. Nikulina [8; 9]), compilation of universal teaching dictionaries is becoming increasingly popular. In each of such dictionaries the information peculiar to the various lexicographical works: accentological, antonymous, grammatical, ideographical, spelling, translation, synonymous, topical, glossary e t. c. is represented that is displayed, in particular, in the work of Y. V. Kupriianov .
Therefore, this articles aims at substantiating the necessity of compiling such a complex teaching dictionary in every discipline and/or a number of disciplines, displaying its place and role in the educational sphere and defining the compilation principles; the objective is to clear up some problematic issues that are characteristic for this process at present.
After a little excursion into the theory of up-to-date teaching technologies the following should be noted: currently the student falls «victim» to the subject-centred teaching system that forms the differential, «ready» knowledge which becomes the basis for developing reproductive thinking. In contract to it, integrative type of cognition that is the core essence of many innovative teaching technologies due to being aimed, in particular, at stimulating thinking processes and activating creativity, promotes restoration of integral world outlook that cannot be effected without using system analysis and inter-subject approach. In any case deviation towards reproductive systems (lesson- and lecture-and-seminar-based ones) prevents from implementation of creative research methods in teaching.
At the same time the outlined problem cannot be solved by means of automatic replacement of some techniques and methods by the new ones even if they are more progressive, inasmuch as it is necessary that the very contents of teaching process should be reconsidered, since «the way to achieve the adequate world outlook as the consequence of the comprehensive general education is not from separate disciplines to the hypothetical whole, it is from integral, holistic world perception translated by means of teaching into the language of the curriculum, to the individual image of the integral world of each of the subjects» [15, p. 19], that is why the leading role in education should belong to the world that is to be studied in the language of sciences, not vice versa.
As stated above, a certain group of scholars [4; 11; 13] sees the way out of this critical situation in teaching integral courses with the restoration of inter-subject communications becoming the basis for them. And those communications would promote restoration of the students’ integral world outlook (regardless of their fragmentary world view!). The first step on this way would be singling out the verbalised subject notional basis the elements of which would reflect the main axes of its contents [11, p. 166] and would be arranged so that the student could have a clear idea of integration of this discipline into the up-to-date scientific picture of the world even at the beginning of studying of this discipline.
For instance, exceptionally technical courses «Refrigeration Theoretical Foundation» as well as «Refrigeration Machines and Special-Purpose Equipment» that are taught at Odessa National Academy for Food Technologies at the Low-Temperature Equipment and Technology Department are intеgral by nature, as in order to master either of them knowledge in a lot of related and unrelated disciplines like classical physics, applied thermodynamics, chemistry, ecology, biology, mechanical engineering, strength of materials, mathematics and computer science are necessary. Browsing through the pages of the offered dictionary at the very first class, the student can make conclusions that he/she is already familiar with most of the «new» discipline terms as well as raise the issue of the different way all those notions are united in this branch of knowledge. In quest of answers to that question the student would master the knowledge consciously which would undoubtedly become a step to achieving the above-mentioned purpose as he/she would have to deal with clearly arranged and at the same time inter-subject notional apparatus with the help of which various problems can be solved.
Therefore, theoretically the need for such a dictionary is comprehensible, that is why we shall dwell on the issue of its type and principles of compilation that is to be reflected in its macro- and microstructures.
The basis for defining the type of such a dictionary is the generally acknowledged classification of lexicographical publications ([3, p. 7–11; 7, p. 206; 2, p. 124, 126–129]). It should be specified that the lexicographical work that contains the main term units, arranges them clearly by the course sections and displays them as the list of terms reflecting the contents of those disciplines can be called a thesaurus («the dictionary with the notional differentiation of vocabulary in accordance with certain topical groups generalised to different degrees and in different amount» [14, p. 598]). Hence the represented version of lexicographical work can be defined as the thesaurus dictionary that in our opinion, would facilitate mastering the material as an integral, logical, clearly arranged system and on its basis would also facilitate learning the equipment alongside with achievements and problems in this branch as a part of up-to-date world culture and part and parcel of human existence. Such a dictionary might not be a translation dictionary, although to our mind it should be arranged exactly like that in the bilingual regions.
Conceptual principles of the offered work – consistency and topical arrangement – have to be implemented first of all in the elements of its macrostructure (the introduction, guidelines on use of the dictionary, the term list, notional and terminological groups reflecting the fields of the subject domain, general graphical illustrations).
This takes us to the fact that the top priority is singling out dominant terms the contents of which would help to create the clear and consistent course outline, as well as singling out the nominations dependent on them to denote the hyponymous and other aspect notions (e. g. partitive, equonimous ones) correlated with the dominant ones (hyperonyms, holonyms). The dominant terms along with the nominations dependent on them (auxiliary or subdominant ones) would make up hierarchised frame blocks that are the elements of the thesaurus and at the same time would function as the engineering knowledge optimum arrangement patterns given as the visual structures as shown hereunder.
It should be emphasised that such lexicographical work should be compiled also taking into account the sequence that the lecturers teaching the subjects stated above adhere to (topical arrangement). Apropos the above-mentioned courses («Refrigeration Theoretical Foundation» and «Refrigeration Machines and Special-Purpose Equipment») are commenced with studying cryophysics (physical and thermodynamic principles of obtaining articificial cold), proceeded by familiarisation with the specifications, parameters and peculiarities of the refrigeration working mediums (refrigeration agents, heat-transfer agents and coolants) followed by the study of refrigerating machines, their general characteristics and, finally, elements of the vapour compressor refrigerator (the compressor, the condenser, the evaporator, the throttle, auxiliary and special-purpose refrigeration equipment). This sequence of delivering the material reflected in the dictionary will coordinate well with didactic purposes of more efficient mastering of the above-mentioned courses and, on the one hand, it «intends to facilitate unification of requirements for different means of control» [11, p. 167] whereas on the other hand, it also intends to facilitate the rather energy consuming processes of learning and revision of large amounts of difficult material for the users, and for this reason the work in question should become part and parcel of the teaching process and one of the fundamental works among other textbooks and teaching aids.
Thus, the frame structure will make it possible to compile a teaching dictionary on the grounds of consistency and topical arrangement on the basis of which the generic-specific, partitive, equonimous and other lexico-semantic relations will be expressed explicitly which is displayed due to the article numeration and various kinds of types (bold type, italic type e t. c.). Furthermore, the dictionary entry marked by one index can consist of either one term or a number of terms united by the dominant nomination. In the given example the term units are displayed in two languages, however the number of languages can vary.
Nevertheless despite the positive aspects the following problem arises: how can the user find the necessary term unit, for the arrangement of the suggested dictionary based on the thesaurus and frame principles involves the alphabetic order of locating terms only in case it does not run counter consistency and sequence of the material presentation. As a result, the помірно низькі температури will precede the nomination кріогенні температури, and the term середні холодильні машини will precede the unit великі холодильні машини, the term одноступеневі холодильні машини will appear before the nomination двоступеневі холодильні машини e t. c. In that case the alphabetic index is to be given at the end of the dictionary.
And another aspect that is now of the utmost importance for Ukraine should be noted. It concerns the introduction displaying the lexicographer’s standpoint, his/her attitude to the Ukrainian language and culture as well as awareness of the world’s and country’s terminological problems.
The scientific and at the same time enthusiastic introduction by V. Perhach («Russian-Ukrainian Scientific Technical Dictionary») [12, p. 3–19] and M. Zubkov («The New Russian-Ukrainian Polytechnical Dictionary: 100 000 Terms and Term Collocations» [10, p. 3-4]) is the role model of the dictionary entry that does not only inform the user, but also encourages «to develop this language intensively» [12, p. 4] as well as create and/or restore terms. e rminological problems.gical problems of thee should be noted.and frame principlesll be end he stuck with a tie.
At the microstructure level, as acknowledged, the dictionary entry is arranged according to the zone principle, as the structure of that article is divided into a certain number of zones depending on the dictionary type (like the types of lexicographical works, the dictionary zones have been researched rather thoroughly [2, с. 123–129; 5, с. 91–97; 6, с. 10–14]). Normally the scholars single out: 1) the head term; 2) the remark concerning the field of use; 3) translation of that heading if the dictionary is a translation one; 4) accentological, grammatical, spelling, orthoepic and word-building term specifications; 5) definition if that is an explanatory dictionary; 6) examples of collocations with other words; 7) derivatives; 8) etymologial information; 9) synonymous/antonymous units; 10) belonging to lexico-semantic fields and groups e t. c.
Certainly while compiling a dictionary the lexicographer may ignore or add certain zones according to his/her own intention as in case of the complex (universal) dictionary the number of zones is to be sufficient. It accounts for seven zones in the work by Y. V. Kupriianov [6, p. 11–14] whose suggested dictionary in our opinion can be considered universal. However this issue requires separate consideration.
Furthermore, at present some of the controversial issues are the ones related to the grammatical zone and the term synonymy zone or, to be more exact, the term variance zone due to the fact that among the terminologists and scholars there is no unanimity concerning the term building issues. For this reason the «reasonable» approach to solving terminological problems is of great interest and its advocates are seeking to work out the optimum alternative of term nominations taking into account the principle of the scientific speech stabilisation, i. e. balancing of the term bulk restoration processes according to the dictionaries of 1921–1933, creation of authentic and borrowing loan units to denote new concepts along with the processes aimed at preserving the terms already existing in the scientific speech that do not have the adequate local substitutes currently. It is clear that this approach is not easy to put in practice as it requires coordinated efforts of many scholars.
For instance, in the grammatical zone the dictionary lexicographer encounters controversial issues in morphology, syntax as well as other language aspects, such as phonetics and derivatology (word building), for terminology in general is to be in keeping with Ukrainian mentality, so ступінь насичення is preferable to ступінь насиченості, прискорювач is preferable to пришвидшувач, установка is preferable to устава, датчик is preferable to давач, охолоджуюча речовина is preferable to охолоджувальна речовина, утилізуючий (утилізувальний) пристрій is preferable to пристрій-утилізатор or утилізаційний пристрій e t. c.
Other problems may arise in the grammatical zone, in particular, translating of Russian two-aspect verbs with the suffix -ирова- like абсорбировать (to absorb), барботировать (to bubble) and it is hardly possible to consider them in one article. The authors of «The English-Ukrainian-English Scientific Speech Dictionary (Physics and Related Sciences)»  suggested the relevant solution to this problem building the forms of the above-mentioned perfective aspect verbs and the nouns motivated by them: абсорбувати//заабсорбувати (to absorb//to get absorbed), абсорбування//заабсорбування (absorbing//absorption) [1, p. 2]; барботувати//збарботувати (to bubble/to get bubbled), барботування//збарботування (bubbling/barbotage) e t. c. [1, p. 51].
There are various points of view among the scholars concerning the alternative term forms (гігроскопічність – вологовбирність, ентальпія – тепловміст, сублімація – визгін, вентилятор – (по)вітрогін, водо(про)від – водогін, підшипник – вальниця, шатун – гонок, хитень, кривошип – корба e t. c.). The author of this article shares the standpoint of the lexicographers O. Kocherha and Y. Meinarovych  who support neither the terminological purism nor the tendency to keep solely Russified term forms that are very popular currently. Having made a throrough analysis and researched the «old» and the «new» alternatives, they represented them in their work as «equal» giving the user the opportunity to choose the relevant term him- or herself [1, р. VII].
Thus, we can conclude that the teaching terminological dictionary in each discipline (or a number of related disciplines) compiled as the thesaurus, such as the complex (universal) dictionary is to help the student to comprehend the up-to-date scientific picture of the world as a whole system and unity of all living, non-living and spiritual things. Based on the grounds of consistency and topical arrangement, this dictionary should have a clear structure with hierarchical placement of nominations, e. g. depending on the degree of generalisation within the lexico-semantic groups, i. e.: basic terms (dominant terms) will serve as the main contents guidelines in a certain domain and the smaller units subordinated to them (subdominants) will disclose the essence of the former ones fully. The comprehensive nature of this lexicographical work can be displayed by complementing it with information on various aspects. This endeavour may become a step on the way to drawing the sciences closer and implementing integral teaching techniques to form the students’ holistic world outlook and, in particular, personal awareness of the significant problem of overcoming contradictions between the human and the environment by everyone through the personal «Self».
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