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of L'viv Polytechnic National University

"Problems of Ukrainian Terminology"


Bohush O. Analytical terms in the system of Ukrainian astronomic terminology //  Website of TC STTS: Herald of L'viv Polynechnic National University "Problems of Ukrainian Terminology". 2013. # 765.


The article are presented in the authors' edition

Oksana Bohush

Ivan Franko National University of Lviv




Bohush O., 2013


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The article shows us the features of Ukrainian astronomical terms which established analytically. On the material Ukrainian astronomical terminology first third of the twentieth century, described the typical structural models of astronomical terms-word-combinations.

Keywords: Ukrainian language, astronomical terminology, term-formation mode, term-word-combination, two-component terminology links, three-component terminology links.


The functioning of term word combinations is a specific feature of scientific style in general and terminology in particular. Thus analytical derivation aiming at forming compound nominations term-combination is one of the most efficient ways of terminology replenishment which became very popular at the end of the XIX century and has been popular so far [9, . 65]. The terminonlogy of word combinations was researched by Valeriya Danylenko [1], Alla Koval [3], Dmytro Lotte [7]. Analytical terms in branch terminological systems were described by Liydmyla Kozak (electro-technical branch) [4], Iryna Protsyk (physical branch) [9], Oksana Chuyeshkova (economical branch) [10], Nataliya Misnyk (terminology of clinical medicine) [8].

The part of term combinations in the Ukrainian astronomical terminology is rather big thus giving a lot of interesting material to research the rules of analytical terms formation and find structural semantic types of such nominations. The analytical way of term formation in astronomical terminological system has not yet been a subject for scientific analysis thus grounding the actuality of the topic.

The aim of the article is to analyze the peculiarities of analytical way of formation in Ukrainian astronomical terminology of the first third of the XIX century and to describe structural types of term word combinations. The fourth part of the dictionary Materials for Physical Terminology by Volodymyr Levytskyi named Acoustics and Optics. Astronomy and Cosmography published in Lviv in 1902 and the third part of mathematical terminological dictionary by Fedir Kalynovych and Hryhoriy Kholodnyy Astronomical terminology and Nomenclature published in Kharkiv in 1931 were chosen for the analysis.

In accordance with Valeriya Danylenko terms-word-combinations dominate in the terminological systems for the reason they can more fully reflect specific features of the notion they define. It is easier to render the belonging to the classification row based on gender aspect relations of notions with the help of terms-word-combinations than using word-formative means [1, p. 132].

Terminological word combination is a variety of a steady formation and is characterized by being the only compound denomination of scientific technical notion, having integral meaning, doing nominative function and being an integral part of the terminological system [6, p. 316].

Terminological combinations are formed on the basis of subordinate link and consist of the main word and subordinate word. For instance there were the following term combinations with the word astronomy at the beginning of the XX century: experimental astronomy (observable astronomy), star astronomy, ball astronomy (sphere astronomy), descriptive astronomy, position astronomy, noticeable astronomy, practical astronomy, theoretical astronomy, physical astronomy where the subordinate components concretize features of the specific notion.

Word combinations of two structural types (two-component and three-component) are found in the astronomical terminology of the first third of the XX century. Depending on the part of speech of the components and their place one can distinguish the following types of the two-component astronomical term combinations:

1)  compound terms formed according to the model adjective + noun where both words have term character: aberration constant, absolute orbit, azimuth error, azimuth projection, aplanet telescope, astronomic longitude, astronomic lunette, astronomic point, astronomic ZALIM, astronomic chart, atmosphere zalim, basic micrometer, tower telescope, running star, running diameter, vertical angle, projection spectroscope, relative error, Saturn point, deviation axis, helioscopic ocular, heliocentric coordinate, geodesic triangle, hyperbolic orbit, gnomonic projection, horizontal collimator, limit error, spiral micrometer, longitude libration, experimental astronomy, ecliptic coordination, eccentricity error, elevation error, zodiac co-constellation, cartographic met, circle micrometer, cometary cover, compensation apparatus, conic swing, meteoritic hypothesis, moon notation, optical libration, parabolic orbit, paralactical ruler, spherical coordinate, gravity equality, physical libration;

2)  compound terms formed according to the model adjective + noun where the noun is the term-representative of gender astronomical notion and the adjective is of non-term character: big planet, visible orbit, age disturbance, inner planet, main triangulation, summer solstice, small semi axis, sea time meter, the biggest elongation, table time meter, celestial sphere, stationary telescope, new style, descriptive astronomy, illuminated hemisphere, personal equality, last Quadra, real horizon, old moon;

3)  compound terms formed according to the model adjective + noun where the noun is a commonly used word and the adjective is a term: absolute observation, azimuth image, anomalistic year, astronomical tower, astronomical clock, atmospheric perturbation, running hat, relative movement, entering knot, geodesic link, geocentric place, hourly thread, day way, star list, cometary kernel, comet-searching pipe, conic shadow, space dust, notation movement, planet loop, observable chair, triangular net, physical steam.

Formation of two-component compound terms where both words have term character is more productive. In these word combinations nouns are the names of gender notion and the adjectives concretize them and show their aspect features.

4)  compound terms formed according to the model adjective of anthroponomical origin + noun : Manshtetten patterns, Doppler basis (Doppler principle), Cassin slit (Cassin cut), Cassan year, Kepler law, Kepler orbit, Kepler equality, Copernicus structure (Copernicus system), Lyaplyasov hypothesis, Merkatorov projection, Meton circle, Newton law, Ptolemy system (Ptolemy structure), Saturn circle (Saturn ring). These terms are the names of the inventions and at the same time identify the person of the inventor. Formation of term combinations with adjectives of anthroponomical origin was rather productive in the 1920ies 1930ies comparing to less productive type of term combinations of gender belonging (model noun in nominative case + noun in genitive case) [9, p. 66], for example: Law of Keppler, Law of Newton, System of Copernicus, System of Ptolemy, Cycle of Meton. The tendency of term formation confirms Dmytro Lottes thought that in terminology the combination of adjective with noun is more comfortable than the combination of two nouns [7, p. 14].

5)  compound terms formed according to the model noun in nominative case + noun in genitive case : argument of longitude, runner of ecliptics, weight of observation, height of equator, distance of perihelia, axis of the Earth, knot of projection, head of comet, way of the Sun, equator of epoch, ellipse of znepravy, coincidence of pivdennykiv, zvorotnyk of Capricorn, change of the Moon, lowering of skyline, star of comparison, circle of raising, circle of height, circle of victory, constellation of zodiac, circle of bowing, angle of view, line of apses, line of knots, edge of errors, broom of comet, bow of ecliptics, inclination of orbit, inequality of movement, circumstances of darkness, description of Universe, victory of the Sun, square of horizon, field of view, size of degree, correction of clock, season of year, error of balancing, projection of maps, extent of day, equality of angles, equality of orbit, equality of sky, difference of longitudes, year of Plato, year of light, lightening of sky, force of pushing, situation of the Sun, side of world, standing of planet, reason of attraction, point of falling, phase of darkness, tail of comet, time of turn. Given examples confirm that the components of these term combinations are of terminological character as well as of common use.

Term word combinations in the astronomical terminology of the first third of the XX century are mostly formed on the basis of government; constructions without prepositions prevail here, however, one can find small quantity of preposition structures among terms formed according to the model noun + noun, for example: furrow on the Moon, addition to latitude, star with broom, Moon with horn, planet at stop.

6)  compound terms formed according to the model participle + noun : exploded knot, lengthened orbit, lengthened drizzle, reflected light, opened swarm, allowed error, lost planet, darkened star, broken swarm, perturbed orbit, perturbed movement, combined attitude, composited star, lowered tide, composited drizzle, lightened hemisphere, shortened distance, tied drizzle, calculated epoch, calculated value, raised tide. Formation of term combinations of such a model in the astronomical terminological system of the first third of the XX century is of small efficiency. Fixed terms with active present participle correspond to the norms of Ukrainian language.

Two component word combinations based on the model numeral + noun (first Quadra, first flat, first quarter), noun + adverb (cut in back (in geodesy), cut in front (in geodesy)), verb + adverb (attract (gravitate) mutually) are non productive.

Thus noun two component term combinations together with terms-nouns make the biggest part in the terminological system of the researched period and are he basis of astronomical terminology. Two types of terminological combinations (adjective + noun and noun + noun) are the most productive whereas the rest are of small efficiency.

Three component terminological combinations may appear as a complication of two component word combinations and have the following models, for example: noun + adjective + noun (weight of geodesic line, longitude of long knot, longitude of Sun point, vibration of earth axis, map of earth hemispheres, point of vernal equinox, point of winter solstice, point of summer solstice, point of autumnal equality, point of autumnal equinox), adjective + adjective + noun (real solar time, midday solar height, main orbital data, average solar time, average equinoctial point, real equinoctial point), participle + adjective + noun (flying turn stars (flying periodic stars), circling side star, falling time stars (flying sporadic stars)). These three component terminological combinations complicated by adjectives and participles concretize and detail notions represented by two component terms.

Therefore, analytical derivation shows high productivity in the process of settling Ukrainian astronomical terminology being one of the basic ways of astronomical terminological system enrichment. At the same time various models of term combinations give the possibility to denominate complicated scientific notions. Two component formations built according to the models adjective + noun and noun + noun prevail in the analyzed terminological system whereas three component terminological combinations make up only a rather small part. The main component defining gender relations is a noun in nominative case; adjectives and nouns in indirect cases and rarely adverbs show aspect relations in word combination.


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