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"Problems of Ukrainian Terminology"
Gymer N. Structural analysis of terms of cosmetics and cosmetology // Website of TC STTS: Herald of L'viv Polynechnic National University "Problems of Ukrainian Terminology". – 2013. – # 765.
The article are presented in the authors' edition
L'viv State University of Internal Affairs
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF TERMS OF COSMETICS AND COSMETOLOGY
© Gymer N., 2013
У статті проаналізовано структурний склад української фахової лексики косметики та косметології. Зокрема окреслено однослівні терміни та багатокомпонентні терміни Серед термінів-однословів виділено непохідні назви як українські, так і запозичені терміни-деривати, терміни-юкстапозити, терміни-композити: композити із запозиченими основами; композити із національними основами; композити комбіновані, а також терміни-слово-сполуки.
Ключові слова: українська мова, термінологія, косметика та косметологія, термінологічна деривація, терміни-однослови, терміни-словосполуки, структурний аналіз.
The structural content of Ukrainian professional dictionary of cosmetics and cosmetology is analyzed in the article. In particular one-word terms and multi-component terms are described. Among one–word terms it is distinguished non-derivative Ukrainian names and also borrowed terms-derivatives, terms-juxtapozites, terms-composites: composites with borrowed stems; composites with national stems; combined composites and also terms-phrases.
Keywords: Ukrainian language, terminology, cosmetics and cosmetology, terminological derivation, one-word terms, terms-phrases, structural analysis.
It is generally known, that terminology is a basic structural element of improvement and standardization of a certain branch and the term is a word and a word combination with a special meaning, which expresses and forms a professional notion, which is used in a process of recognition and understanding of scientific and professional objects, and also relations between them.
During the last decades the problems of terminology are often discussed and in connection with automatization of informational processes, appliance of electronic-calculating machines for terminological data banks formation, automatized dictionaries. The formation of such thesauruses is impossible without standardization and unification of terminological lexica, studying of linguistic problems of terminology, revealing of peculiarities of terms-forming in every certain branch of knowledge.
General questions of terminology in Ukrainian linguistics were studied by L. Boiarova, T. Kyiak, I. Kochan, A. Kryzhanivska, G. Matsiuk, T. Panko, L. Symonenko and others. The systemic of terminology was studied by S. Bulyk-Verkhola, V. Vynogradov, M. Zarytskyy, T. Kandelaki, G. Nakonechna, F. Nikitina, V. Ovcharenko, V. Piletskyy and others. The borrowings in Ukrainian scientific-technical terminology were studied by I. Kochan, G. Krakovetska, O. Medvedieva, V. Piletskyy, Z. Taran. The issue of terms-systems norming was discussed by K. Gorodenska, T. Mykhailova, O. Taranenko. The peculiarities of terminological nomination were studied by T. Zhuravliova, V. Zvegintsev, L. Palamarchuk, T. Prystaiko, V. Prokhorova, A. Superanska and others. The linguistic analysis of terms-lexis with the usage of informational technologies was performed by E. Skorokhodko, T. Kyiak, S. Shelov and others.
On the modern stage it has arisen a need to form a personal national professional lexis of cosmetics and cosmetology, new professional names and to order already existed nominations into a clear system, which has to provide with terms-names the cosmetic branch and cosmetology as a particular science.
Actuality of the study is based on a need to totally and bilaterally analyze the professional lexis of cosmetics and cosmetology. The structural analysis of Ukrainian terms of cosmetics and cosmetology hasn’t been yet an object of a special study. Functionality of these terms-units in a scientific and scientific-productive sphere and also a wide usage of them in a generally linguistic communication determine a formation of general and specific laws of forming of lexical system of cosmetics and cosmetology.
Purpose of the work – to characterize terminological nominants of studied professional language of cosmetics and cosmetology, to determine basic the most active structural types, which are used for naming in the studied terminology.
The act of terminological word-forming depends on classification of notions, in a range of which the formed term will exist (as a name of a notion of this range), as terms of one classification range as far as it is possible must be formed on the basis of one word-forming model (both word-terms and terms-word combinations). In such a case it must be considered, that the term not only names a notion (is its name), but also in a certain way determines the content on a notion. Evidently, this last peculiarity of the term is a reason of forming of mainly compound terms, that is terms-word combinations, which are able to more fully describe the characteristics of a notion. In a term-word a part of word-forming morphemes plays this role, the choosing of which in such a case becomes extremely important [4, p. 62–67].
Forming of a new term is a real process, which stands between an author and a recipient. Existence or absence of a sense in a name of a notion are determined with interaction of the term with thesaurus of a recipient: the term gains the sense, when understanding it the recipient in his mentality forms a cognitive forming, maximally close to the author’s one.
The language of the modern science and technique is a complicated system (in cognitive meaning), the elements of which are closely connected with each other paradigmatically and syntagmatically. The paradigmatic connection means, that associative connections are traced between the notions of a certain branch of knowledge and accordingly between the terms for definition of such notions. The choice of language signs for syntagmatic correlations is determined form one hand by their paradigmatic relations and from the other hand – by their ability to combine with other terms. The understanding of the scientific message also is done both paradigmatically and syntagmatically. And concerning the formation and usage of terms it demands the precision, as particularly the terms with one-meaning definitions provide the clearness of the scientific presentation understanding.
The understanding of the new scientific notions is done accordingly the certain schemes of comparison in the mentality of a human being with already known knowledge. The certain study situation always describes a criterion of a scientific understanding of a studied phenomenon. The complexness of a building of an entire system of terms-forming is determined also by subjective dialectics – qualitative difference of the terms, with the help of which naming of new notions, phenomena is done. Studying the world a scientist more and more needs to make new language means, which precisely fix the dependence of the study’s results of specific of correlation of a subject and an object, that is why word-forming means play an important role in the process of the scientific notions naming. The notions must be named in such a way, when a new term is semantically clear, and necessarily is a part of a certain system.
It is known, that forming of new units provide morphological and lexis-semantic methods of word-formation. The peculiarities of the terminological word-forming, unlike general one, predict the usage of limited complex of models and understanding of terms-formation. The act of terminological word-formation is in a close relation with the classification of the notions .
Among the terms-scientists there are no a unified mind concerning the structural types of terms distinguishing. Danylenko V. distinguishes terms-words (they include non-derivative, derivative, complex units, and also abbreviations), terms-words combinations and symbols-words . Veklynets L.  on the basis of the material of the terms of psychology differentiates terms-simple words, terms-composites, terms-words combinations. Terms-scientists distinguish terms-root words, terms-derivative words, terms-complex words, terms-words combinations, terms-abbreviations (shortenings), terms-symbols-words, terms-signs-models or model-words.
Among terminological nominants of the studied professional language it can be defined only two the most active structural types, which are used for the naming: terms-one words (one-component terms) and terms-word combinations (multi-component terms). Separately it must be distinguished a very productive method of naming – abbreviation, which namely is a intermediary between the two already named ones, as a word combination is abbreviated into formally one word.
In the process of nomination of different types of notions the priority position has a word. In a many centuries history the studying of a word the tenths of criteria of its definition were proposed, in the basis of which there were different principles – both unified and complex.
In connection with the analysis in this chapter of terms-one words, conditionally among many aspects of definitioning of a word we distinguish the one, in order to operate with it for certain, only terminologically-nominative needs: a word is a lexical unit, which on the morphological level is a distinguished-drawn up complex of morphemes, united by independent lexical meaning [6, p. 31–32].
On the basis of the above presented, the one word-terms include:
1. Terminological units of root-flective composition, i.e. the units, in which accordingly the modern language the word-forming affixes are not distinguished. In the process of borrowing these terms were borrowed from languages-donors in such a phonetic presentation, in which they were used in a native language. Adapting to norms of the Ukrainian language those of them, which in the native language had affixes, did not lose them, but lately in the Ukrainian language they gained instead the status of words – root-flective composition (root + ending). It is explained with a try of the language to adapt the borrowed words to its lexis-semantic and grammatical structure. But the matter is not only about the borrowed lexemes, but also аbout special: scrab, bubble, skin, fan balance, bandage, breasts, probe, oxygen, nevus, papule, mask, ointment, cream, spasm, mascara, glitter, eye-brow, nails, wax, lips, neck, age, growth, fat, nose, stick.
Example: OINTMENT, f. – syn. – unguentum, I n [unguere to oint]; E. ointment, salve, uncture, unguent – soft sticky medical form for external use [9, V. 2, p. 57], FAT, m. – adeps, ipis m; axungia, ae f; sebum, I n; E. fat – a compound of etherglycerin and higher carbon acids; included into content of lipids; energet., plastic and heat-isolated material in a body of a human being and animal [9, V. 1, p. 479].
2. Terms – affixal derivatives. Terms, the content of which includes prefixes and suffixes: mixer, filtering, sprayer, spacer, allergic, abdominal, antibacterial, anticoagulant, aromatic, itch, odor, groove, eye-lid, age specific, vesicle, inflammation, injection, poultice, infusion, decoction, lotion, bandaging, valley, blotch, apostasis, massaging, epidermic, overskin, depilation, acidity, compact, contrast, correction, visagiste, massagist, secretory, moisturizing.
Example: “Absorbing and evaporation. These processes are explained by the fingernail plate structure. Between coats of nail there are microchanels, through which the process of evaporation and absorption of substances is made” [7, p. 42], BOIL, m. – syn. BLAIN, BEETLE, ABSCESS – abscessus, us m [abscedere, pp. abscessus leave, separate]; E. abscess – loc. Accumulation of pus in a tissue, separated from it [9, V.1, p. 315], DOSING, n. – dosatio, onis f [G. δόσις↑]; E. dosing – definition of the quantity of medicine or chemical substance, necessary for achieving of a certain effect; division into doses, determination of a dose [9, V. 1, p. 415], GNARL, m. – ecphyma, atis n [ec- + G. φύμα phyma gnarl]; condyloma, atis n; excrescentia, ae f; E. growth, excrescence, condyloma – 1) painful swelling; excessive thickening of some part of a body; 2) something, that has grown of the surface of something [9, V. 2, p. 138].
3. Terms – composite derivatives. Terms, which are formed by composition of two roots or bases, mist derivatives, formed by basis-composition, have two-component nature: autotan, autoplastics, aloplastics, aromatherapy, balneotherapy, bioepilation, blepharoplastics, water treatment, hydrocolonotherapy, hypoallergenic, mud treatment, darsonvalization, dermabrasion, exfoliation, electoepilation, electromiostimulation, endermology, biotonic, miolifting, cosmetology, hydromassage, hypoderma, mamoplastics, mesotherapy, thermogel, adipocere.
Example: MELANODERMIA, f. – syn. MELANOSIS, MELANODERMA – melanodermia, ae f [melano- + G. δέρμα derma skin]; E melanoderma – excessive deposition of melanin in skin [9, V. 2, p. 90], TWO-COLORED, a, e – bicolor, oris [bi- + color]; E. twocolored, dichromatic – which has in its coloring two colors; bicolor [9, V. 1, p. 361], DERMATOM, m. – dermatomus, I m [derma- + G.τομος tomos segment]; E. dermatome – 1) dorsolateral area of somit; mesenchymal germ of connective tissue of the skin basis; 2) instrument for cutting of pieces of skin from the surface of a body [9, V. 1, p. 374], AEROTHERAPY, f.– aёrotherapia, ae f [aёro- + -therapia*]; E. aeropherapy – treatment with air baths [9, V. 1, p. 59], AUTOTRANSPLANT, f. – autotransplantátum, i n [auto- + transplantáre, pp. transplantatus transplant]; E. autotransplant – a piece of an own tissue or organ of any form and size, taken from one segment of a body and transplanted and others [9, V. 1, p. 46], LIPOLYSIS, f. – lipolysis, is f [lipo- + -lysis*]; E. lipolysis, lipoclasis, lipodieresis – breakdown of lipids [9, V. 2, p. 50].
All terms-composites can be divided into:
composites with borrowed bases: autoplastics, aloplastics, aromatherapy, balneotherapy, bioepilation, blepharoplastics, hypoallergenic, dermabrasion, electroepilation, miolifting.
composites with national bases: water treatment, mud treatment, two-colored.
composited combined: autotan, criocleaning, thermodrying, miolifting, wate massage.
4. Terms – juxtaposites. This derivative group includes terms, which are formed by combination of entire words into one compound word: deodorant-antiperspirant, lifting-serum, cream-powder, cream-gel, gel-glitter, stick-corrector, cream-fluid, vacuum-therapy.
Example: COMPOSITIONS-BASES – it is a mixture of perfumed substances with certain odors, composed by a constant formulation. Bases are not ready compositions, but their existence makes easier the work of a perfumer, increases his mobility, avoids a necessity to make a perfumes’ composition “from scratch” [7, p. 68].
The main distinctive peculiarity of many-words terminological units, which allows to separate them into a certain class (terminological word-phrases), is a connection with some scientific or scientific-natural notion, which is too difficult for its definition with one-word term. According to V. Marchenko [6, p. 36–40], a compound internal correlation in a sphere of notions of a science and technique makes this method the most productive and perspective.
Terms-words combinations easier, than other word-forming methods, express belonging to a classification range, which is based on gender-type correlation of notions. A word phrase is not a syntactically independent unit, it can be thought as a result of abstraction of depicted sides of reality from a context, consituation, in which exactly an act of predication can exist – affirmation or objection of something.
In syntax word phrases accordingly their structure are divided into simple (two-component semantic-syntactic combinations of full-meaning words) and compound (many-component (three and more words) combinations of full-meaning words. While analyzing terms-words combinations we divide them into simple and compound.
Two-component semantic-syntactic combinations of full-meaning words: face cleaning, skin lifting, skin polishing, hairdo modeling, wrinkles liquidation. Example: POWDER COVERING – powder’s peculiarity while putting on a skin with the thinnest layer not to shine through, cover and make a skin’s “complection tone” less expressive, to hide skin defects [7, p. 265].
Many-component (three and more words) combinations of full-meaning words: silken compact powder, pearly lipstick, liquid lipstick, moisturizing cooling mask, ultranourishing firming cream, daily adaptive cream, concentrated anti-age serum. MEDICAL COSMETIC PRODUCT – pharmacological means, which is allowed by Pharmacological Committee of Ministry of Health of Ukraine to be used with the purpose of treatment and prophylaxis of skin pathologies and its supplements [7, p. 10].
Conclusions. Terminological means of professional lexis of cosmetics and cosmetology are presented by two basic the most productive structural types – one-component and many-component terms, with a significant superiority of the last ones.
In forming of new professional lexemes such main tendencies are evitable, as further growth of quantity of terminological word-phrases, in a basis of which it is often put terminological units of dermatology and medicine in general.
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