C  STTS

      - 㳿

| Staff | Address | Structure | Conference | Herald | Archive | Announcement |


Herald

of L'viv Polytechnic National University

"Problems of Ukrainian Terminology"

 765


Kochan I. Terms with (o)- () in Ukrainian academic speech // Website of TC STTS: Herald of L'viv Polynechnic National University "Problems of Ukrainian Terminology". 2013. # 765.


 

The article are presented in the authors' edition

Iryna Kochan

L'viv Ivan Franko National University

 

TERMS WITH (o)- () IN UKRAINIAN ACADEMIC SPEECH

 

Kochan I., 2013

 

()--() 㳿 . .

: , , , , , ()-...-().

 

The specific component Fit(o) in scientific terminology of modern Ukrainian language was detailly discussed in this article. Dynamics the of these words with terminological elements and their tendency to harmony with national terms was revealed.

Keywords: Ukrainian language, terminology, international component, terminological element, terminology, creation of terms, component fit(o)-...-fit(y).

 

Words with international components play important role in any terminological system, regardless the time of its appearance. International components are roots of Greek and Latin origin which are used with the same meaning in other languages in Europe. Components may have various place (position) in a word: it may be used at the beginning or at the end, or it may have binary position. Գ(o)-() element exactly belongs to such components. It was not an object of special linguistic research, thus topicality of its study is undeniable.

The aim of analysis is to enucleate terms with such terminological elements in both general and terminological dictionaries, to clarify the meaning of special ones, to characterize them paradigmatically and syntagmatically, to study their dynamics in the language during the century.

Words with international roots in Ukrainian linguistics were studied by H. Krakovetska, in separate terminological systems by Z. Kunch (rethorical), L. Myslovska (military), H. Pasternak (economical), Z. Taran (medical). Status of international components was defined by K. Horodenska, N. Klymenko, Ye. Karpilovska and others. A considerable number of scientists have traced coinage and appearance of such words in some styles of the Ukrainian language, especially terms in the language of mass media were analyzed by O. Serbenska, A. Styshov, O. Todor and other, terms in artistic language and spoken language A. Nelyuba, L. Stavytska etc.

Vocabulary with certain terminological elements was researched by A. Moskalenko (-, -, -, -), L. Pacera (-), H. Pivtorak (---); O. Serbenska ( -); M. Stashko (-); N. Tytaranko (- ), H. Chernetska (-, -, -, -, -, -, -) etc.

Գ()- component is of Greek origin (jvtón plant, sprout). It indicates the relation with the notion of plant in compound words, e. g. , [15, p. 880].

There are no words with such an element in Dictionary of foreign and not very understandable words by V. Domanytskyi (1906) and Dictionary of the Ukrainian language by B. Hrinchenko (1909). This phenomena could be explained by the fact that the words with ()-element were not spread in the vernacular and were not in common use.

Dictionary of foreign language words, issued in 1932, already includes such lexemes as: , , , , , , , , , , , , [1, p. 455], and the dictionary by O. Skalozub (1933) presents: , , , , . In the appendixes of Boretskyi (1955) one can trace , [12, p. 529].

It is defined in Dictionary of the Ukrainian language in eleven volumes that it is a part of compound words, its meaning similar to the word plant, e. g.: , [17, V. 11, p. 602]. There are such indicated words: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , (24 words).

21 terms are found in The Dictionary of foreign words (1974). Besides the indicated words above, there are , , , [14, p. 710711]. And the addition of 1985 included , , [15, p. 880881].

Orthographic dictionary edited by S. I. Holovachuk (Kyiv, 1977) provides such words: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , [7, p. 801]. (18 words).

Russian-Ukrainian dictionary of botanic terminology and nomenclature (compiled by D. Afanasyev, A. Barbarych, D. Zerov and others) (Kyiv, 1962) also includes the following words: , , , , , [8, p. 143].

Dictionaries of scientific terminology also suggest such terms: [9, p. 546]; , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , [10, p. 582583]; , , , [11, p. 814] 43 nominations.

Ukrainian-Latin-English medical explanatory dictionary (1995) encompassed terms like , , , , [18, V. 2., p. 626].

One of the newest dictionaries The new in the Ukrainian vocabulary by D. Mazuryk (Lviv, 2002) includes words , [5, p. 125], and a dictionary New words and meanings (2008) broadened this range with such lexemes: , , , , , , , [6, p. 259260].

More lexemes like , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , appeared in Big explanatory dictionary of modern Ukrainian(2007) [2, p. 1538]. In all, there are 74 words.

Dictionary of Ukrainian biological terminology (2012) includes 35 terms: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , [13, p. 568570].

Words with this component denote:

1) denominations of scientific disciplines and their branches:, , , , , , , , , , , , , . For instance: a branch of biology which studies life of plants [17, . 11, p. 602]; a branch of biology which studies regularity of plants expansion and their groups on the Earth [ibid]; a branch of botany which studies fossil remains of plants [ibid]; a branch of cosmetology which develops means of skin care using herbs [6, p. 260];

2) names of substances: , , , , , . For example, physiologically active substances from steroid group sterols of different origin [15, p. 880], bactericidal substances which are produced by higher plants like onion, garlic, horseradish, citrus and others [17, V. 11, p. 602];

3) names of animals and insects: , , , . For instance: an animal which lives on plants [13, p. 568]; a vermin beetleof weevil family, whose larvae feed onleaves and flowers of lucerne [ibid]; an animal which feeds on vegetablefood [15, p. 880];

4) demonimations of plants: , , . For example, plant organism which remains in symbiosis with other organisms [14, p. 710]; lower fungi genus of oomycete class which parasitize on potato, tomato etc. [14, p. 710];

5) names of totalities: , , , , . For instance: plants totality which grow at the basin ground [14, p. 710]; plants totality (usually alga) which flow freely in the upper layers of basin [17, V. 11, p. 602]; totality of meteorological conditions in which plants grow [ibid];

6) names of generalization: , , plant life on the Earth [13, p. 569]; plant envelop of the Earth [ibid];

7) names of processes: , , For example: evolutionary historical development of biological world of different type, different phylum, different family and genus or its separate representatives [13, p. 568]; herbal treatment [6, p. 260];

8) names of occupations or work: , , , , , . For example: specialist in phytopaleontology [2, p. 1539];

9) properties, abilities, relation to something, which is indicated by the root: , , , . For example, one which causes vegetable diseases [2, p. 1538]; one related to phytotron [ibid]; one related to phytopathology, linked to phytopathology [ibid].

10) names of institutions, facilities: , , , . For example : specialized department for selling herbal decoctions andbeverages (as a rule, at chemists) [ibid]. experimental station with artificial climate for plants [2, p. 1538];

11) names of methods: a method to estimate different factors, conditions, phenomena, regimes of environment on the basis of availability of different plant species or plant communities, it is based on species relations to the conditions of their prevalence [13, p. 569];

12) names of herbal medical products: , , For example, medicine used to treat urinary tract disorders [2, p. 1538]; herbal medical product [ibid];

13) names of diseases: , , . .: dermatosis caused by vegetable excitators[2, p. 1538]; vegetable disease caused by phytophthora [ibid];

14) names of certain organisms: , : vegetable disease agent [13, p. 569]; an organism which is a part of phytoplankton [ibid].

Generic terms collocated with such words make generic name: (phytocenosis) of: twins, interaction, diffuse, natural, close, close-canopy, inversive, interserial, artificial, mosaic, virgin, cultivated, open, polydominant, simple, complex, linked, elemental, endemic); (phytophtorosis) (of potato, tomato); (pytocenotype) (of enduring people, special forces).

Adjectives with - comprise terminological phrases: (phytogenic succession), (phytogenic organism).

Polysemy is typical for terms: 1) science about plants, their structure, evolution and classification; 2) totality of knowledge about herbs; 1) organisms related to plants due to their development; 2) ecological group of fish which lay eggs among water plants [13, p. 570]; 1) totality of vegetable species population, which as a result of interaction form homogeneousintegralcover which differs from others with vegetable features; 2) the smallest homotypic certain part of vegetation cover on the homotypic territory [13, p. 570];

Synonymic raw of terms includes: geography of plants, botany, phytogeosphere, paleobotany, , geobotany. Variants could be traced among the terms: physiology of plants, anatomy of plants, chemistry of plants.

Antonymic relations are the following: open . close, . canopy close, . simple complex.

All in all, 119 words were traced. The corpus includes: 101 nouns, 18 adjectives (, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ). The meaning of adjectives denoted relation to a word stem to which it indicated or certain ability.

PavloShtepa suggests substituting -component with the Ukrainian word , which plant in English, and to produce compound words following the example: , [19, p. 392].

For the last years -component has acquired specific word-formative mobility and, according to the Internet and mass media, it is used actively in the words which are not registered in any of the dictionary previously mentioned. These are especially such terms as: (vegetable diseases caused byparasitic fungi), (low-molecularcomposition, which was formed in the cells of a plants, they regulate their grow and development); (fossil plants), (room for growing plants); (a toxic substance produced by plants), ( science about plants behavior) etc.

Words with -component transferred to everyday speech. Thus, in order to name a room where one can take herbal decoctions and beverages for preventive measure, new words appear: , , etc. The beverages were denominated as .

Cosmetics and cosmetology use more and more frequently , which include: , , , , , , etc. People purchase now in and chemists: , , . Mass media promote : (herbal decoction steam treatment which facilitate decontamination and prevention fromcold-related diseases), , (mountain walk, during which it is possible to gather berries and mushrooms, herbs). There are on the territory of Ukraine, which provide different , from time to time open.

If we trace combination of Greek components and loan components in terminological lexemes raw, now there are words-components with the second Ukrainian part: , , , , . Naturally, only due to science field such words with terminological meaning transfer into commercial, mass media and everyday life sphere.

Mainly terms with prepositional terminological element - outline terminological systems of botany, pharmacy, and today even cosmetics and cosmetology.

Գ()- components have been traced in postposition, e. g. , , , , , , etc. It refers to the relation to plants in compound words. They mainly denote plants. Compare: plants, which comparing to hydrophytes, are fully or partially submerged [14, p. 160], water plants attached to soiland only their lower part issubmerged [ibid, p. 164]; terrestrialplants which grow in the conditions ofhigh humidity [ibid, p. 160], perenials whoseterrestrialorgans die out in winter, and regeneration budsare laid on the roots [ibid, p. 371] etc.

Terms also denotes plants , , , , , , etc. Moreover, the first part of composite indicates the peculiarities of a plant. For instance: light-demanding plants, which are adapted to full sunlight conditions, subterraneum plants; plants of nonsalty soil and freshwaters. The difference between, , , lies in adaption of plants to peculiarities of soil (moist or dry, acidic soil or not).

Besides description of plants purely, terms can also denote other biological notions. Thus, are microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, fungi) which spend part of their life cycle inside plants and do not affect them. are sexual generation of living organisms haploid multicellularphase of life cycle of plants and sea weeds, which develop from sporophytes and form sex cells, gametes.

Only terms like , have different meaning. newly-baptized, newly-blessed, generally new follower of religion; figuratively novice who joined some doctrine, religious movement [15, p. 579], and are separate dwellings or whole settlements constructed with piles with wooden platform over water or marsh. They are known since Neolith [ibid, p. 614].

Postpositional element with zero ending may have purely medical meaning. Compare bones pathology: outgrowthon thesurface of the bone [18, V. 2, p. 212], ramusarticularis [ibid, V. 1, p. 135].

Therefore, it is possible to state that the component in postposition functions as a classificator of notions, since it indicates the relation of these words with this postpositional component to plants.

All in all, it is possible to take a note that -element has lately acquired word-formation mobility and it has become means for formation not only new biologically oriented terms, but also words related to biological branches, gradually transferring into everyday life. Research of similar components will facilitate the trace of dynamics of academic speech development.

 

1.  . / . , . , . , . . .,-., 1932. 2.  / . . . . ., 2007. 3.  . . / . . ., 1906. 4.  / .  . . ., 1937. 5.  . : - / . . ., 2002. 6.  : / . . . , . . . ., 2008. 7.  / . . .  . . . ., 1977. 8. - 㳿 . / . . . , . . , . .  . ., 1962. 9. - 㳿: / . . , . . , . .  . ., 1994. 10. - 㳿: . ճ. / . . . , . . , . .  . ., 1996. 11. - 㳿: . Գ. . / . . . , . . , . .  . ., 1998. 12.  . , , / . . , 1933. 13.  㳿 / . . . , . .  . ., 2012. 14.  . : 4 . ., 19071909. . 4. 15.  / . . . . ., 1974. 16.  / . . . . ., 1985. 17.  : 11 . / . . . . ., 19701980. 18. -- / . . .  . : 2 . ., 1995. . 2. 19.  . : . , 1978.

 

 

    - 㳿