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"Problems of Ukrainian Terminology"
Kucherenko E. Terms-composites in Ukrainian and German civil defence term systems // Website of TC STTS: Herald of L'viv Polynechnic National University "Problems of Ukrainian Terminology". – 2013. – # 765.
The article are presented in the authors' edition
National University of Civil Defence of Ukraine
TERMS-COMPOSITES IN UKRAINIAN AND GERMAN CIVIL DEFENCE TERM SYSTEMS
© Kucherenko E., 2013
Ñòàòòþ ïðèñâÿ÷åíî äîñë³äæåííþ ñëîâîñêëàäàííÿ ÿê ñïîñîáó íîì³íàö³¿ ïîíÿòü ñó÷àñíî¿ óêðà¿íñüêî¿ òà í³ìåöüêî¿ òåðì³íîëîã³÷íèõ ñèñòåì ñôåðè öèâ³ëüíîãî çàõèñòó. Êîìïîçèö³ÿ â³äïîâ³äàº âèìîãàì, ÿê³ õàðàêòåðèçóþòü ñóòí³ñòü òåðì³íà, âèçíà÷àº ï³ä´ðóíòÿ êëàñèô³êàö³¿ ðîäî-âèäîâèõ ñïåö³àëüíèõ ïîíÿòü.
Êëþ÷îâ³ ñëîâà: óêðà¿íñüêà ìîâà, í³ìåöüêà ìîâà, òåðì³íîëîã³ÿ, öèâ³ëüíèé çàõèñò, ñëîâîñêëàäàííÿ, òåðì³íîëîã³÷íà íîì³íàö³ÿ.
The article deals with research of word composition as a main method of nomination of concepts of the Ukrainian and German terminology of civil defence. Composition answers requirements which characterize the matter of term, determines basic foundation of classification of the kind-specific special concepts.
Keywords: Ukrainian language, German language, terminology, civil defence term, word composition. terminological nomination.
Problem formulation. Term vocabulary study is important in terms of logical scientific knowledge construction, the level of country particular field of knowledge development at some stage of historical evolution, ways of terminology forming [5, p. 45]. The civil defence terminology research is urgently needed, as there are a lot of new phenomena and processes in this field and they require precise nominations.
Basis for this exploration is urgent need of analysis of the characteristics of oral and written Ukrainian and German communication of the professional staff, which prevents and eliminates emergencies in Ukraine and aim to take part in international rescue operations in the German-speaking regions.
Terminology is extremely dynamic professional language subsystem. That’s why ways of word composition are enriched and improved in the process of new terms creation [6, p. 50]. The study involves works of such native and foreign derivation researchers as E. I. Amosenkova, M. D. Bonesshe, H. A. Wynokur, L. L. Humenska, V. D. Danylenko, M. I. Zakharova, N. F. Klymenko, E. V. Rozen, L. A. Symonenko.
Background of the linguistic research is determined by that civil defence sublanguages terms-composites functioning detailed analysis haven’t been made, but we have urgent need to compile translation bilingual term dictionaries.
The paper proposes to examine Ukrainian and German civil defence term systems lexical innovations. We intend to discover compounding as a word composition way, to determine distinguishing features of these terminologies in the languages, where term vocabulary significant layer is created with own and borrowed components.
Materials and methods. Terms-composites are recorded in Ukrainian civil defence terminology. According to scientists it’s a linguistic economy tool, which combines autonomous word stems in a lexical item and expresses a few concepts essence in a term that is presented in Ukrainian terminology by the phrase [5, 6, 9]. However, according to our observations, terms-composites aren’t significant elements of Ukrainian civil defence term system.
According to many foreign researchers, word composition is particularly developed in German and other Indo-European languages. Word composition (compounding) is a basic derivation process in German [1, p. 31]. As the analysed facts show, this derivation method is one of the most powerful sources of German civil defence term system development and replenishment by its functional and structural units arsenal using.
It is confirmed by processed professional texts and vocabulary material, that civil defence terms-composites of modern German terminology is one of the most common tool of concepts nomination in the study area of human activity, because compounding meets the requirements that characterize a term meaning and features of language functioning.
Of course, the advantages of this derivation method are term nomination forms compactness and frugality, correct term features display in the relevant term field to refer to different objects of reality. Compounding as a terms creating way clearly defines each term of the relevant terminology and outlines features of the specific concepts genus-species classification. Term groups which describe specific concepts are formed with compounding based on key terms which express genus concepts [5, 6, 9].
Ukrainian and German civil defence terms, which are relevant foundation of the modern terminology, can be divided into specific thematic groups. They are “Fire-extinguishing Equipment” (“Die Feuerwehrtechnik“), “Fire Prevention“ (“Die Brandvorbeugung“), “Fire-fighting Tactics“ (“Die Feuerwehrtaktik“), “Automatic Fire-fighting Equipment“ (“Die Feuerwehrautomatik“), “Civil defence legal framework“ (“Die Rechtsgrundlagen für Zivilschutz“).
The concept which corresponds to a specific complex term of the each thematically limited group takes its place in the concepts system of a particular civil defence term group and terminology at all. For example, term nomination of the thematic group “Fire-extinguishing Equipment“ (“Die Feuerwehrtechnik“) expresses the concepts complex with the overall seme “hardware, devices, intended to fire extinguish“, term nomination of the thematic group “Fire Prevention“ (“Die Brandvorbeugung“) has the overall seme “fire prevention measures in the national economy“, term nomination of the thematic group “Automatic Fire-fighting Equipment“ (“Die Feuerwehrautomatik“) contains the overall seme “emergency response organization (civil defence units work, emergency recovery techniques and methods according to the kind, nature and characteristics)“ etc.
Each thematic group isn’t limited quantitatively and qualitatively. Its components active transformation is defined by continuous terminology development and different languages terminology interaction. Quantitative and meaningful characteristics of the each national terminology thematic group are determined by the peculiarities of the some country civil defence term system functioning and replenishment.
For example, in a such term group as “Automatic Fire-fighting Equipment“ (“Die Feuerwehrautomatik“) modern German civil defence term system contains hyperonym “fire detector“ and more than 30 different hyponyms, which have different genus-specific characteristics (der Melder, der Brandmelder, der Rauchbrandmelder, der Wärmefeuerwehrmelder, der Handbrandmelder, der Automatikbrandmelder, der Feuerwehrgasmelder, die Brandmelderanlage etc.), while the same Ukrainian term system contains only 18 components.
Generally, multicomponent terms, single components of which are built up, function in analysed German term system. In Ukrainian professional language correspondences of such term nominations are often multicomponent term phrases as the most typical tool of the developed definition expressing: der Brand (“fire“), der Brandschutz (“fire protection“), die Brandschutzbestimmung (“fire safety rule and requirements“).
Terms-composites component structure can be varied. Efficiency of civil defence multicomponent terms due to the fact that they make it possible to express basic concept most precisely, as they correspond to several key attributes of the term (unity of formal structure, informativity, correctness, simplicity, expressive neutrality) at once [3, p. 11].
Term components semantic-syntactic relations govern new complex terms creation in German civil defence terminology. According the nature of grammatical relations between components of a complex term attribute, attributive-copulative and copulative subordinations are fixed.
Attribute relationships are the most productive in the complex terms group of German civil defence vocabulary. The first component determines the second in such a complex term nomination. Such a term components semantic relationship has the common feature: the first component (definition word) specifies the meaning of the second (signified word). For example, der Zivilschutz (“civil defence“), die Extremsituation (“emergency“), der Notfall (“emergency case“), der Rettungsdienst (“rescue service“), die Rettungswache (“rescue guard“). Also in the study term system three-component attribute term-composites was recorded. The signified noun of these terms involve two components, which specify its meaning (das Schlauchlöschfahrzeug ― “hose tender“, das Wasserfeuerwehrrohr ― “hose mouthpiece“ etc.).
Unlike the attribute composite, complex words components, subject to co-ordinate link, are equal in the composite role (die Brandursache ― “cause of the fire“, der Brandherd ― “fire source“, die Brandstelle ― “fire location“, die Brandklasse ― “class of fire“ etc.).
Analysis of processed fact material afford ground to confirm, that the attributive-copulative relation characterises only three or more component terms (die Brandschutzregeln ― “fire protection rules“, die Zivilschutzmassnahmen ― “civil defence measures“ etc.). We observe that two components of such derivative words have the subordinating relationship between themselves and co-ordinated relationship with the main word.
According to the number of components most German civil defence terms-composites are binary compounds (die Feuerquelle ― “source of fire“, das Schlauchsaufroller ― “hose winding-up“, der Rauchmelder ― “smoke detector“, der Schaumangriff ― “foam attack“, der Wasserstrahl ― “water jet“, die Brandbekämpfung ― “fire fighting“ etc.). Ukrainian term system contains phrase analogues. It is confirmed by aforementioned examples.
Three-component German terms are also extremely common (die Feuerbekämpfungsmaßnahmen ― “fire-prevention measures“, das Flammenschutzmittel ― “fire-proofing agent“, die Feueralarmanlage ― “fire alarm installation“, der Feuerlöschschlauch ― “fire hose“, das Feuermeldersystem ― “fire alarm system“, das Wasserfeuerwehrrohr ― “hose mouthpiece“, der Brandschutzentfernung ― “firebreak“ etc.).
Total number of the four- and five-component terms is much smaller than the number of two- and three-component in the study professional German language (das Gaswasserlöschfahrzeug ― “gas and water extinguish fire engine“, das Feuerwehrwasserschutzfahrzeug ― “fire waterproof engine“, die Feuerwehranhängemotorpumpe ― “fire trailed water pump“, das Feuerwehrzerstäubungsrohr ― “adjustable nozzle“ etc.).
Substantivize two-component terms analysis proved that nouns, adjectives, verbs, numerals, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions are their main components. For example, the noun der Melder (“detector“) is the main component of the term der Rauchmelder (“smoke detector“), adjective gefährlich (“dangerous“) is the main component of the composite brandgefährlich (“flammable“), adjective beständig (“strong“) is the main component of the term lexical item feuerbeständig (“fire-withstanding“), etc.
However, the parts of speech activity in civil defence complex terms formation varies. German noun two-component composite has the greatest functional prevalence (die Schlauchkupplung — “hose connection”, die Rettungsarbeiten — “rescue operations”, der Wasserdruck — “water pressure” etc.). Such terms creation is efficient, because composite which has major second component (noun) is a lingual formation that has specific features at the moment of occurrence. On the one hand, it’s syntactic, and on the other, it’s special for only etymological German term vocabulary.
Three-component term with the noun main word takes the second place, that is also German civil defence terminology special feature (die Brandschutztechnik — “fire equipment”, das Feuerlöschfahrzeug — “fire truck”, das Brandbekämpfungsflugzeug — “fire department aircraft”, der Feuerschutzstreifen — “fire distance” etc.).
In German civil defence terminology compound words arise due to the formation of a unified complex stem. The stem may contain radicals (composite der Löschangrif — “interrupting attack” contains the verb radical löschen — “interrupt” (lösch-) and the noun der Angrif — “attack”), derived simple stems (there are nouns der Schlauch — “head”, das Wasser — “water”, der Sammler — “collector” in the term der Schlauchwassersammler — “water collecting head”) or complex stems (term nomination der Feuerwehrhubschrauber — “fire helicopter” — has German complex stems die Feuerwehr — “fire”, which consist of two radicals (das Feuer — “fire”, die Wehr — “protection”), and the noun der Hubschrauber — “helicopter”).
By the components connection way and nature modern German civil defence terminological field tends to increase the number of derivatives, which have syndetic consonant -s- (der Rettungsdienst — "rescue service", where die Rettung — "rescue", der Dienst — "service"; das Löschungssystem — "suppression system", where die Löschung — "fire", das System — "system", die Berufsfeuerwehr — "professional fire brigade", where der Beruf — "professional", die Feuerwehr — "fire brigade"), and complex term nominations, formed by the stems combination without syndetic sound (der Brandalarm — "fire alarm", der Brand — "fire", der Alarm — "alarm"; die Feuermeldung — "fire indication", where das Feuer — "fire", die Meldung — "indication"; der Katastrophenschutz — "disasters protection", where die Katastrophen — "disasters", der Schutz — "protection" etc.).
Complex terms of Lösch- (interrupting / extinguishment, fire-fighting), Löschungs- (interrupting / extinguishment, fire-fighting), Rettungs- (rescue), Feuerwehr-, Feuerlösch-, Feuer-, Brand- (fire), Atem- (breath / breathing) components are very common. For example, Lösch- (interrupting / extinguishment, fire): der Löschangriff — "interrupting", der Löscherfolg — "extinguishment result", die Löschausrüstung — "fire extinguishing equipment", die Löscheinrichtung — "line of fire", das Löschfahrzeug — "fire-fighting truck", das Löschgerät — "fire extinguisher", die Löschmänner — "firefighter", die Löschmethoden — "firefighting techniques", die Löschmittelfüllung — "fire-extinguishing agent filling", die Löschpistole — "fire gun", die Löschmittelschäden — "fire-extinguishing agent rate", der Löschpulver — "dry chemical", die Löschtechnik — "fire-extinguishing equipment", die Löschwasserversorgung — "fire-extinguishing water supply", die Löschwirkung — "fire-fighting result / fire-fighting action", der Löschzug — "fire-fighting train", das Löschwasserbecken — "fire suppression pond" etc.
Conclusions. Summing up we confirm that compounding is uncommon method of Ukrainian civil defence terms creation, but it is the most productive way of German terminology functioning due to the peculiarities of each language. Most common term-creative types were discovered in this term systems.
Our research perspective is further Ukrainian and German civil defence term field processing to compile translation bilingual terminological dictionary.
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