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"Problems of Ukrainian Terminology"
Veremchuk O. Stylistic transposition mathematical terms: codification aspect // Website of TC STTS: Herald of L'viv Polynechnic National University "Problems of Ukrainian Terminology". – 2013. – # 765.
The article are presented in the authors' edition
Acad. S. Demyanchuk International Economics and Humanities University, Rivne
STYLISTIC TRANSPOSITION MATHEMATICAL TERMS: CODIFICATION ASPECT
© Veremchuk O., 2013
У статті на матеріалі загальномовних словників української мови ХХ – початку ХХІ століття проаналізовано процес стилістичної транспозиції математичних терміно-одиниць. Розглянуто проблему неадекватного представлення в кодифікаційних працях реального семантико-стилістичного потенціалу математичних термінів.
Ключові слова: українська мова, математична термінологія, семантика, стилістична транспозиція, термін, стилістичний транспозит, мікрозначення, переносне значення, пряме значення, семантична структура слова.
The article deals with the analysis of the process mathematical terms stylistic transposition on the material of Ukrainian explanatory dictionaries of XX – beginning of the XXI centuries. The author comprehends the problem of inadequate presentation of real semantic and stylistic potential of mathematical terms in codification works.
Keywords: Ukrainian language, mathematical terminology, semantics, stylistic trans-position, term, stylistic transposit, micromeaning, figurative meaning, direct meaning, semantic structure.
Transformation of the socio-economic environment of the Ukrainian state, the further intensification of scientific and technological progress, that cause deeper language intellectualization, extension of the words functional fields, resulting in new contexts of tokens use. They are directly related to the increasing influence of the general vocabulary and terminology, that covers almost all segments of the linguistic field and they also identify the main determinants of lexical-semantic language level in general and updating stylistic terms transposition process in general. Certain aspects of terminological units stylistic transposition have already been the subject of scholars scientific interest (N. Nepiyvoda  T. Panko, J. Kochan, G. Matsyuk  A. Styshov  L. Struhanets  etc.). But in modern linguistics there are no studies concerning the mathematical terms stylistic transposition on the basis of lexicographical sources. Relevance of the chosen topic is determined by the fact that activation in laying different types of dictionaries in paper and electronic format requires study of the stylistic transposition phenomenon, that is presented in the national lexicography. This will adequately reflect stylistic status by terms in the codification works, particularly in the sphere of mathematical knowledge. The aim of the article is to analyze the specific features of the mathematical terms stylistic transposition in the modern Ukrainian language codification practice. There are the following tasks: 1) to present some tokens of the "Mathematics" terminology, which undergone the stylistic transposition, 2) to describe the changes in the semantic structure of the stylistically transposed mathematical terms, 3) to establish the adequate lexical items fixation of the mathematical semantics in the Ukrainian language dictionaries.
In this paper, on the basis of lexicographical sections method performed the codification comparative analysis of such works as: RUS-37, RUS-48, RUS-79, SUM, VTS-2004. The temporal limits for terminology units transformation to the common lexical fund is determined on the basis of stylistic markers in these lexicographical works. The basis for the tokens semantic structure alteration analysis is words interpretation in the explanatory dictionaries. We consider that terminology marks removing in the codification sources is a statement of transformation of the term to the common usage.
During the observations we distinguish a set of mathematical semantics tokens that changed their stylistic status without extending semantic scope. We have to state that various groups of one-meaning tokens transformed to the common fund. Among them we should list the fallowing: mathematical shapes names (parallelepiped (RUS-48*) (with an asterisk (*) we manifest the latest terminology mark fixing of lexical unit), parallelogram (RUS-48*), polyhedron (RUS-79*); names of mathematical concepts (bisector (RUS-79*), hypotenuse (RUS-79*), leg (RUS-48*), multiplier (RUS-48*), median (RUS-79*), ordinate (RUS -48 *), perpendicular (RUS-79*); mathematics chapter titles (trigonometry (RUS-79*).
It is worth emphasizing that we also observe some changes in a complexity of the semantic structure that are presented in the use of related micro meaning (the MC) and some lexical-semantic variants (hereafter LSV).
As it was recorded in the dictionary entries, we consider the related MC as the simplest semantics branch of the mathematical terms stylistically transposition. By studying the codification sources we allocated a set of lexical items, that are complicated by the direct MC. For example, the word diameter in RUS-48 was recorded as a mathematical term, and in SUM we observe not only the removal of the terminological mark near the token. This is not only the basis for a statement about its non terminological status, but it also attest the presence of the related direct MC: "Line segment that connects two points of the circle and passing through its center; // Diameter of any round body, space or which appears round" [SUM, II, 295]. Similarly the token cone is fixed in RUS-48 with a label math., at the same time in SUM registers it is introduced with non terminological parameters and related MC: "Geometric body, that is formed by turning a right triangle around one of the legs; // Something resembling such geometric body" [SUM, IV, 272]. We can also allocate the directly related MC to clarify the term usage in the semantic structure of the former mathematical term trajectory (RUS-48*): "The continuous line, which describes the body or the point while moving; // In ballistics – the flight line of the projectile, bullets, mines, etc. "[SUM, X, 225].
We also observe the formation of meanings, as well as figurative meanings, in the lexical units, that transformed from the field of mathematical knowledge. Let us illustrate this with an example of the token algebra. It is important that the stylistic transposition and semantics complexity process of the token covers the considerable chronological interval: the range RUS-37 – VTS-2004. The stylistic transposition of the term algebra happened at the stage RUS-37 / RUS-48, and there is only one meaning of this stylistic transpose in SUM, that determines the term as "A branch of mathematics that studies the general laws of actions with values regardless of their numeric value, that are expressed in letters, " [SUM, I, 32]. At the same time in the VTS-2004 registers the presence of the original figurative meaning of the former term is recorded "2. move. The fact that smth. contains significant challenges for implementation, and so on. (as opposed to something simpler)" [VTS-2004, 13].
The mathematical terms semantic structures could be also complicated not only with figurative meaning, but also with a direct ones. For example, the word diagonal is represented in RUS-48 with a bounding label math. SUM also determines the non terminological stylistic status of this mathematical term, as well as its direct related meaning: "1. A straight line between two non-adjacent vertices of a polyhedron or between two vertices of the polygon, that are not situated on one of its facet. 2. Thick fabric with seam on the slantways line" [SUM, II, 225]. The idea of understanding the term diagonal as a slantways line is the basis of semantic changes.
The token radius, which is codified as a mathematical term in the SUM dictionaries can extend the semantics through the MC formation for the basic and derivative related meaning: "1. Line segment that connects any point of a circle or sphere with a central point; // The distance from a point of a circle or sphere to the center. 2. The dimension of the coverage, scope, distribution of anything in respect of a center "[SUM, VIII, 436]. Obviously, the semantics of the word evolution takes place on the basis of successive synthesis: primary LSV – derived MC – related direct LSV.
In the study we have also processed some tokens which form the terminology on the stylistically transposed values basis. For example, the word parameter is marked with the mark math. in all dictionaries before SUM, but in SUM we may find stylistically transposed meaning of this word, as well as the related terminological meaning: "1. The value included in the mathematical formula and maintains a constant value only under these conditions. 2. special. The value that is inherent to any object, device, phenomenon" [SUM, VII, 66]. At the same time there is a kind of semantic expansion for the word parameter in VTS-2004. It is illustrated with forming the terminological and figurative meanings:" 3. special. Variable, which determines the value of another variable. 4. figur. Criteria, indicator, sign, while using which one can provide evaluation, which characterize something" [VTS-2004, 705].
As a result of detailed Ukrainian language common dictionary registers study in the context of identifying the mathematical terminology tokens fixation characteristics we have generated the list of tokens with inadequately fixed stylistic status. During the research we have distinguished a set of tokens that require removal of terminology labels due to their real functioning without terminological stylistic parameters in the linguistic sphere, as well as their general intelligibility for speakers. These include some lexical items as abscissa, polyhedron, squaring, coordinate, multiplicity, sector, degree, projection.
Despite the overall clarity of the token polyhedron it is observed with the terminological status in such dictionaries as RUS-48, RUS-79, SUM and VTS. It is also presented in the above mentioned lexicographical works registers with its synonym polygon without any terminological parameters.
The word abscissa is qualified as a mathematical term in VTS-2004, though the meaning of this lexical unit is known for the speakers from the school course of studying algebra. It is interesting also that another token ordinate is presented without any marks at the same terminological dictionary.
Certain lexical items of mathematical semantics may produce related direct meanings, but at the same time they remain being terms in the dictionary registers. For example, the word multiplicity in SUM dictionary is presented as one-meaning term from the field of mathematical knowledge: "1. math. Numeric property to entirely devise by any number" [SUM, IV, 330]. In VTS-2004 we may observe the further qualification of the primary meaning as a mathematical term and the emergence of the related direct meaning: "2. The total amount of any regular actions" [VTS-2004, 462]. The related meaning formation is characterised by the metaphorical semantic generalization of the initial meaning. Both LSV require revision of stylistic characteristics reflection due to their general understandings for the speakers.
It is necessary to emphasize also, that the word coordinate is wrongly classified as a mathematical term in all studied vocabularies, in spite of the distinguishing in its one-meaning semantic structure related direct LSV, as it is noted in VTS-2004: "1. special. The numbers that define the position of a point on a straight line or a curve on a plane, surface, in the space etc. 2. pl., conv. The address or any information about the location of someone, something "[PTS-2004, 452]. It is important to provide real stylistic parameters of the first tokens meaning.
Besides, we considered some lexical units, that during their stylistic transposition may form not only figurative but also terminological meanings. So, the word projection is marked with a math. in RUS-48 and in SUM it is presented with two meanings, one of which is qualified as a mathematics field term, and the second – as a term of some special knowledge field: "1. math. Spatial shape image in the plane. 2. special. Larger image of some stationary objects (pictures, drawings, film shots, etc.) on the screen with a help of optical instruments" [SUM, VII, 178].
The terminological marking may maintain for some tokens that have the semantic structure which represent the figurative meaning escalation from the initial terminological micro meaning, direct and terminological meanings. The word sector is marked with math. in the dictionaries before SUM, but in SUM it is presented with a label special., it is also represented with a range of related meanings: "1. special. Part of a circle that is bounded by an arc and two radii; // Details, parts of objects, machines etc. that have such form. 2. Land bounded by radial lines; // Part of a certain area, field, district. 3. Part of the economy, which has some social and economic characteristics; // A component of something. 4. Department of the institution or organization. 5. special. System control department of the plane, ship etc." [SUM, IX, 115]. The figurative meanings creation is mostly based on the direct transfer of the sam "part" from the initial into the derivative meaning. That is the basis for a finding the primary meaning stylistic transposition and removing its terminological marking in further lexicographical works.
We state that there is a kind of inadequacy in presenting the mathematical terms semantics changes in the Ukrainian language lexicographical sources due to the stylistic transposition influence. We have observed the presence of tokens that are fixed in dictionaries with terminological status, despite the active use of their derivative meanings in the linguistic sphere (in journalistic, scientific, conversational style). The mathematical term vector is given in SUM and VTS-2004 with a terminological label: "math. A straight line segment with a specific numeric value and a direction in space" [SUM, I, 264]. Nowadays the meaning of this word is not codified and it is "some direction in general" (e.g: development vector, scientific research vector, etc.). This meaning arose by direct transfer of the sam "direction" from the primary to the derived meaning.
Our research revealed also a set of highly specialized mathematical terms which are included in the dictionary registers without any specialized remarks, though the actual conditions of their use may give reasons to affirm the necessity of their terminological status regulation. These are the words that mostly define some notions of the mathematical skills, such as: iteration, lemma, etc.
As a conclusion we would like to emphasize that "Mathematics" terminological sphere is a productive one in the context of stylistic transposition dynamics. Addition of the general linguistic resources with the mathematical terms is highly active at the stage between forming RUS-48 and SUM. The enlargement of mathematical semantics transposes occurred during the transformation stage from SUM to VTS-2004. According to the research information given in this work we may confirm the hypothesis about inadequacy between stylistically transposed mathematical units fixation in the Ukrainian language dictionaries and their real functioning in the linguistic sphere. In view of the above mentioned this topic is still relevant and requires further research.
РУС-37 – Російсько-український словник / відп. ред. П. Мустяца. – К. : Вид-во АН УРСР, 1937. – 890 с. РУС-48 – Російсько-український словник / гол. ред. М. Калинович. – К. : Вид-во АН УРСР, 1955 видання Словника 1948 року, випр. і доп. – 804 с. РУС-79 – Російсько-український словник / уклад. : Д. Ганич, І. Олійник. – К. : Рад. шк., 1979. – 1012 с. СУМ – Словник української мови / І. К. Білодід (гол. ред.) та ін. – Т. 1 – 11. – К. : Наук. думка, 1970–1980. ВТС-2004 – Великий тлумачний словник сучасної української мови / гол. ред. В. Бусел. – К. : Ірпінь : ВТФ «Перун», 2004. – 1440 с. МК – мікрозначення. 6 ЛСВ – лексико-семантичний варіант.
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