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"Problems of Ukrainian Terminology"
Vaskovets L. Terminologization and determinologization in treasury terminological // Website of TC STTS: Herald of L'viv Polynechnic National University "Problems of Ukrainian Terminology". – 2013. – # 765.
The article are presented in the authors' edition
Kovel' Industrial and Economic College Luts'k National Technical University
Terminologization AND determinologization In Treasury terminological
© Vaskovets L., 2013
У статті розглянуто співвідношення між загальновживаними словами й термінами. Схарактеризовано основні шляхи переходу загальної лексики до складу казначейської термінолексики. Простежено за процесом детермінологізації казначейських термінів.
Ключові слова: українська мова, термінологія, загальновживане слово, казначейський термін, казначейська терміносистема, термінологізація, детермінологізація.
The article deals with the correlation between commonly – used words and terms. The greatest attention is paid to the main ways of transition of commonly – used vocabulary to the structure of treasury system of terms. The process of determinologization of treasury terms is also analysed there.
Keywords: Ukrainian language, terminology, commonly-used word, treasury term, treasury system of terms, terminologization, determinologization.
Formulation of the problem in general and its relationship with important scientific and practical tasks. Terminological any field of science, including the Treasury, there is always dynamic. Between the common lexicon of terms and there is a constant exchange of words of general use alter its basic lexical meaning and are terms, and the terms are often part of the common units. These two processes are continuous and interconnected, which helps to maintain balance in the language. Questions and terminologization determinologization investigated linguists such as T. I. Panko, G. P. Matsyuk, V. M. Rusanivskyi, G. V. Chornovol, but these problems will continue to remain relevant and require further study.
Analysis of recent research and publications. Into the world of objects, phenomena and processes much more than words on their labels. There is no need to create each time a completely new word, because you can use existing language features. A. V. Kryzhanovska and L. O. Symonenko noted: "Despite the variety of techniques that are used to create new terms, the most important of internal law of a very long tradition of creating new terms based on words that are zahalnoliteraturniy language. The bottom line is terminologization semantic change existing words in the language in order to create a new term "[2, c. 48]. G. P. Matsyuk indicates that during terminologization "cross extralinguistic factors (technological progress creates new concept) and of internal validity (nominative need resources provided by the use of words in general use function terms)" [4, p. 202]. By L. Struhanets, terminologization – "semantic process that covers a wide range of literary language words and leads to a restructuring of their semantic structure. The movement from the field to the common lexicon of terminology occurs in two directions: through the development of secondary meanings of terms in ordinary lexical units and by using common words in complex terms " [8, p. 227].
During terminologization understand the process of updating terminological vocabulary through secondary category (metaphor, metonimizatsiyi) and the use of proper names in the timing.
During terminologization posluhovuyutsya sound shell word or phrase that already exist in the language to denote a new object or phenomenon to special communication. This name is secondary, since the sound envelope generators words is called names based on their likeness or contiguity. According to the nomination of a new special concept used is not any common words, but only those which are fixed known differential features found in the structure of the new realities. That is to isolate the new value of mandatory common trait in both meanings of the word – an old (commonly used) and new (terminology). The specificity of this method is that the semantic structure of the word undergoes complete or partial modifications due to quality of semantic change.
Terminologization as a process of functional reorientation in modern Ukrainian language is the following basic models:
a) commonly understood simple word – a word-term;
b) free phrase – terminospoluchennya.
Bold still unsolved parts of the problem which the article. The purpose of the paper is in the characterization and process terminologization determinologization for example treasury terminology, which has been the object of scientific study.
1) Check the features terminologization as a result of secondary nomination;
2) to monitor the process determinologization in Treasury terminology.
The main material research with full justification of scientific results. The system of treasury concepts are terms that have a long history in the development of treasury opinions. They are recorded in general (explanatory) dictionaries and special treasury. That is, the following terms used in zahalnoliteraturniy language, and specialized with similar meaning. For example is identify the same tokens in a special Treasury and explanatory dictionaries:
1) "Inflation – excess to the needs of trade increase of paper money and their rapidimpairment" [7, v. 4, p. 42], "Inflation – sustained depreciation (reducing their cost) due to the excess number of banknotes in circulation, the sum of prices of goods and services, as reflected in higher prices, lower living standards and other negative outcomes" [1, p. 290].
2) "price – value of goods expressed in monetary terms, fee, reward, monetary compensation for anything" [7, v. 11, p. 236], "Price – monetary expression of value (for simple commodity production and shrinkage of demand and demand), the price of production (at a lower stage of capitalism) and the monopoly price of (at its highest stage) " [1, v. 2, p. 539].
3) "The deficit – the excess of expenditure over income, loss, a small number, lack something compared to the need" [7, v. 2, p. 259], "Deficiency – lack of funds, resources, resulting in an economic equilibrium is disturbed, rozladnuyetsya monetary and financial sector, increasing the threat of economic crisis " [1, v. 1, p. 160].
These tokens can be called polyfunctional as they both witnessed both in the Treasury and in general use, but with a somewhat simplistic value.
The next group of concepts form the tokens actually "adapted" to the terminological field. Quite often, is redefining the semantics of words as lexical unit can not fully describe the contents of a special concept. Changes in the lexical meaning of common units responsible for the appearance of a new word with a special meaning. When you select a new value binding is to have a common trait in both meanings of the word – an old (commonly used) and new (terminology).
Ways emergence of new terminology values in this group of terms can be determined by comparing their conceptual correlation in scientific and consumer sectors. In linguistics highlighted some of the possible ways to transfer values: metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche [11, p. 164]. In Treasury terminology terminologization process was, for example, within the meaning of the word "ceiling". In a general sense "Ctelya – upper inner covering in any room" [7, v. 9, p. 683]. Based on this value because there is a specialized metaphorical meaning commonly rethinking the place of "ceiling – the limit of credit, rising interest rates set by the state, above the central bank" [1, v. 2, p. 367] and "ceiling prices – statutory maximum level of prices for goods and services in order to slow inflation and prevent the decline in living standards of the poor below the critical limit " [1, v. 2, p. 367].
But remember that next to the above facts terminologization phenomenon exists and intersystem homonyms when one token is in terms of treasury system, and the other – in the common lexicon. These words have the same sound form, but completely different meanings: "Pillow – stuffed with down, feathers, hay, etc.. bag used as soft bedding under his head, seating and other purposes " [7, v. 6, p. 763] and" Pillow – overpricing of invoice for a certain amount to cover possible losses from currency depreciation payment" [1, v. 2, p. 117]. In modern terminology Treasury most common is a kind of lexical items go home to a group of terms, often terminolohizuyutsya not only words but also the combinations of words that can trigger certain associations. In such cases we can talk about moving phraseology commonly used phrases or compound to level terms as jargon: "Smooth Cat – financial firm that gets windfall, financing risky operation" [1, v. 1, p. 130].
At present such units operate as normative terms, the value of which is fixed in special dictionaries for Economy and Treasury.
When removing the term from its usual environment determinologization observe the process, the driving force which serves a functional shift. Determinologization – terminologization inverse process, which has the same mechanism, but it works in reverse. Terms and determinolohizovani units are more similar than different traits. Their essential difference is only in operation in various fields of communication [3, p. 47].
In terminological encyclopedia O. O. Selivanov determinologization defined as "the phenomenon of language, expression language economy and asymmetric dualism of the linguistic sign, which is a transition to a common lexicon of terms" [9, p. 117]. L. V. Struhanets determinologization studying the phenomenon in the context of the dynamics of lexical rules on material dictionaries. She argues that "the process determinologization usually occurs when the term covers the deficit in the category of certain objects or relations, is an empty gap in a certain semantic field" [9, p. 245]. According to observations by the researcher, determinologization lexical items last long. Before becoming part of the common fund, the term is changing, which can be divided into four stages: 1) birth, 2) rapid deployment of semantics, accompanied by a stream derived from base words, and 3) the period of stability, expansion of relations with other lexical groups; 4) crisis, recession, accompanied by blurring the boundaries of technical terms [8, p. 238].
F. O. Nikitin proposes to distinguish partial and full determinologization: partly due to the use of non-special contexts terminology in the literal sense, is complete in the case of the formation of a figurative sense through direct . We support this view and believe that the process determinologization (loss of his monopoly period terminological function) associated with the use to frequent term beyond its term system in the media, in colloquial language. It involves the development of a new semantic structure of word lexical-semantic variation that occurs by transfer of title, such term asset ("set property, intellectual property, financial resources, the enterprise, company, companies (buildings, machinery and equipment, stocks, bank deposits, investments and securities, patents, copyrights, etc.), who invested in equipment owners and others " [1, v. I, p. 160]) and passive (" aggregate debts and liabilities' commitments of the enterprise (as opposed to assets) " [1, v. II, p. 66]) in modern language used initially clear terminological meaning units of economic sectors, including the Treasury. Now the policy is often referred to as positive signs assets a person or a phenomenon, according Liability – Negative: In passive Vyacheslav A. – lack the necessary influence in the party (Kontrakty. – 2009. – 12.10) In our assets – eight and a half thousand USD payments mother at birth in liabilities – babies are found in the trash at the door shelters (Kontrakty. – 2009. – 27.05). Another example serves as a term – "the loan in cash or in kind in return for a specified period with interest payments" [1, v. I, p. 381], which initially operated only in the economic and banking sector. Now the policy phrase means a trust that is granted to individuals to realize their plans: Parliament of Ukraine gave the government a big vote of confidence by adopting the Law on State Budget for 2008 (Mirror Weekly. – 2008. – 06.03) Crediting of new power is huge, but not eternal (Mirror Weekly. – 2009. – 14.08). In education loan – a numerical value (between 1 and 60). From the treasury terminology in political usage meaning "impairment fall" spread such tokens as depreciation – "carried the state by legislation reducing the exchange rate of its own currency on the currency of another country" [1, v. 1, s.304] If you go back to the problems of today, it is, in fact, there are many trends before manifested: the devaluation of education, property devaluation, lowering standards, emigration (Mirror Weekly. – 2008. – 06.03) and inflation – "the process of depreciation due to the excess number of banknotes in circulation, the sum of prices of goods and services, as reflected in their growth " [1 v. I, s.684]: Does not lead to inflation of images that people completely lost faith in the products (Mirror week. – 2010. – 11.05).
During determinologization word goes through several stages. In the first stage, it partially loses its terminological nature. It denoted the concept remains the same, but it can, depending on the context, appear more shades of meaning that reflect the subjective perception of the corresponding object or phenomenon speaker. In this way, a violation of an unambiguous korelyatyvnist between denotation and scientific definition, erased the difference between terminology and the use to neterminolohichnym words.
Determinologization next step is to design the term as a word zahalnoliteraturnoyi language and its fixation in the dictionary. Special, scientific meaning of the term is reduced to a minimum, it usually gets a great stylistic potential and can function as a basis for further semantic derivation already zahalnoliteraturniy language.
Terms moving from one to the other terminology, may maintain its lexical meaning or evolve, gaining new meaning in the new terminology surrounding, and sometimes, on the contrary, a term deriving from the narrow, restricted semantics.
Findings from this study and recommendations for further research in this direction. In conclusion, it should be noted that the terminological Treasury as part of the fund is complex terminology, organization of special units, diverse in origin and essential characteristics. Much of semantic changes in speech due interrelated and continuous processes "implantation" of terms in common language (determinologization) and the development of new terminology values based on the semantics of common words (terminologization). However, linguistics is not fully explored all the way terminologization and determinologization that is promising in further scientific exploration of this direction.
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