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"Problems of Ukrainian Terminology"
Vasylyayko I. Structural-semantical features of terms-word-combinations of modern Ukrainian terminology of cinematographic art // Website of TC STTS: Herald of L'viv Polynechnic National University "Problems of Ukrainian Terminology". – 2013. – # 765.
The article are presented in the authors' edition
L'viv Ivan Franko National University
STRUCTURAL-SEMANTICAL FEATURES OF TERMS-WORD-COMBINATIONS OF MODERN UKRAINIAN TERMINOLOGY OF CINEMATOGRAPHIC ART
© Vasylyayko I., 2013
У статті проаналізовано особливості кіномистецьких термінів-словосполучень у сучасній українській мові. Висвітлено специфіку їхньої семантики, виділено найбільш типові структурно-семантичні моделі, за якими утворено складені найменування.
Ключові слова: українська мова, аналітичний термін, термінологія кіномистецтва, термін-словосполучення, двокомпонентний термін-словосполучення, багатокомпонентний термін-словосполучення.
The features of term-word-combinations of cinematographic art of modern Ukrainian are analized in the article. The specific of their semantics is reflected, the most typical structural-semantical models, the compound names of which are formed, are distinguished.
Keywords: Ukrainian language, analytical term, terminology of cinematographic art, term-word-combinations, double-base term-word-combinations, multicomponent terms-word-combinations.
The system of terms as lexical system of language is open for including of new nomination units. Current lexemes combining with the terms of the certain system, acquire a new, narrow meaning and form terminological word-combinations. Terms-word-combinations are semantically full units that consist of two and more components. They are similar to the free word-combinations with the difference that free word-combinations perform the nomination function, and terms-word-combinations – nomination and definitive function, as they mark certain, strictly envisaged concept. In Ukrainian terminology of cinematographic art, according to our researches, 45 percent of general amount of terminological units are two-, three- and multicomponent terms.
Analysing nomination processes in terminology, researchers mark a proof tendency of activation of syntactic derivate. Terminology of word-combinations was the theme of linguistic analysis in works of Valeriya Danylenko, Alla Koval, Svitlana Lokaychuk, Lesia Маlevych and other researchers. However, terms-word-combinations in Ukrainian terminology of cinematographic art were not the object of the detailed analysis and need the all-round scientific working. Thus, actuality of theme is predefined by a necessity to investigate the semantic and structural features of the compound names in Ukrainian cinematographic terminology.
The aim of the article is the structural semantical analysis of terms-word-combinations in cinematographic terminology of modern Ukrainian. Lexicographic work of Volodymyr Myslavskyy "Cinema dictionary. Terms, determinations, in-words" is selected for the analysis, that is the first attempt in Ukraine of systematization of information about genres, styles and flows in the world cinema, development of filmmaking, movie rent and techniques.
Using actual material of this lexicographic source we will educe conformities of forming of cinematographic terminological word-combinations and define the most widespread structural models. The compound terms are formed due to different formative models; according to structure two-, three- and multicomponent terms are distinguished among them. The Ukrainian linguist Ivan Vychovanetc offered dividing of word-combinations into simple and complicated and, accordingly, he reckoned double-base word-combinations to simple, thre- and multicomponent - to complicated [1, p. 195–196]. Russian linguists R. Kobryn and B. Holovin distinguished free and proof terms among the investigated terms [4, p. 45]. On the basis of the mentioned works and own supervisions it is educed two , three-, four- and the five component compound terms in the analysable "Cinema dictionary". The most numerous group is presented by double-base structural models, in particular, noun word-combinations, there are presented units of such elements:
- noun in a nominative with a noun in a genitive case: author of dialogues, author of screen version, author of scenario, assistant of operator, assistant of stage-director, instrument room of the audio recording, atelier of the audio recording, performer of role, production of films, departure of camera, diversification of film industry, director of film, management of film studio, effect of dizziness, effect of presence, replacement of lens, darkening of shot, audio recording of film, fracture of movie film, change of lens, cinema of survival, classification of films, comedy of absurdity, comedy of customs, comedy of the states, composition of shot, composition of film, contratipivation of film, corner of survey, area of film, editing of attraction, editing of negative, editing of film, music of film, inclination of movie camera, negative of image, negative of phonogram, precipice of film, rerecord of phonogram, positive of image, positive of phonogram, booster of sound, projection of film, rent of film, editor of scenario, reconstruction of film, restoration of film, sharpness of image, sorting out of scenery, roller of film, factory of dreams, film of action, film of horrors, background of inscription, part of movie, frequency of projection, sensitiveness of movie film, stand of movie camera;
- noun in a nominative with a prepositional-substantival form: survey from hands, survey in an apartment, survey in foreshortening, survey in move, comics in the cinema, mark on a movie film, kiss in a diaphragm, test for role, special effects in the cinema, turret for lenses, fantacy in the cinema, focus in an optics. For the word-combinations of this model government with the use of prepositions is typical: in, for, from, on, in;
- adjective with a noun in a nominative case: the animation cinema, antitrust legislation, afocal system, biographic film, free cinema, inside frame editing, military film, secondary markets, street film, gangster film, gerontology film, hybrid film, mountain film, gothic film, detective film, jazz comedy, speaker text, dynamic composition, documentary cinema, screen forms, exploiter film, extreme cinema, eccentric comedy, woman film, yellow film, ferrous scenario, gold series, gold crossing, playing film, intellectual cinema, interactive cinema, historical drama, historical film, cinematographic frame, chamber film, kestoun comedy, continental film, counterpropaganda film, suit drama, criminal film, cult film, little budgetary cinema, marginal cinema, language cinema, assembling sheet, animated cinema, mile opera, mad comedy, wide angle lens, model survey, independent cinema, mute cinema, new holywood, nostalgic film, pavilion survey, panoramic cinema, parallel cinema, inter cutting, parfume film, juvenile cinema, subconscious film, double display, frame-accurate survey, political film, cop show, full-length film, poetic cinema, adventure film, direct cinema, working name, stage-director’s cenario, romantic film, salon drama, samurai film, non-commission officer film, jump mechanism, teary film, sporting cinema, stereoscopic cinema, stereoscopic filming, subsahar cinema, subjective chamber, judicial film, televisional film, prison film, feminism film, focal surface, feature film, ceytrafer filming, wide screen film, spy film.
The row of analytical terms is presented by combination of participle and noun in a nominative: executive producer, ordered film, smeared image, movie set, instilling lens, unexhibited tape, clarified lens, lost film. There are a few terms combinations with active present participle (wandering mask, leveler light, escaping production, noise swallowing boxing) in the dictionary, that are not peculiar for Ukrainian. These terms dissatisfy to the norms of literary language, are copies of Russian and need adjustment.
Terms-word-combinations, formed by combining of adjective derivative from a geographic name with a noun in a nominative, are fixed in lexicographic edition also: the Australian cinema, American cinema academy, American plan, American editing, English comedy, Afro-American cinema, Hong Kong cinema, Indian cinema, Italian cinema, China cinema, German cinema, New York school, Swedish school, Swedish cinema, Japanese horror.
We will notice that, though, the great deal of double-base terms is presented in a "Cinema dictionary”, only four structural models with the main word noun are educed.
More various spectrum of structural models is distinguished in terms with three components. Three-component terms mostly are complicated double-base, specified and detalised. The different models of three-component structures are fixed:
- an adjective + adjective + noun in a nominative: actor filming test, age-old restrictive rating, survey long-focus lens, survey short-focus lens, European cinematographic concord, young German cinema, musical library record, model movie set, new Australian cinema, new American cinema, new Hong Kong cinema, new Indian cinema, new Italian cinema, new China cinema, new German cinema, new Swedish cinema, New York new wave, optical visual effects, movable sound-recording setting, suspended lighting staging, projection lens screen, projection concave screen, extended scenario request, Russian gold series, masculine teary mile opera, Czech cinematographic miracle.
- an adjective in a nominative + noun in a nominative + noun in a genitive case: actor composition of film, diaphragm number of lens, iris-shutter of lens, survey position of chamber, golden age of Hollywood, skilled window of movie camera, colourful decision of film, international federation of cinema archives, international federation of film societies, international federation of movie press, notmounted material of film, graphic decision of film, advertisement campaign of film, antisun blind of lens, celluloid druft of the animated cartoon;
- a noun in a nominative + adjective in a genitive case + noun in a genitive case: effect of reverse motion, effect of speed-up motion, effect of slow motion, cinema specialist of technical profile, method of perspective combinations, selection of the taken off material, worker of suitable workshop, film of youth culture, film of masculine action, film of white telephones, photographer of survey. Prepositional constructions function in some three-component terms-word-combinations, for example: machine-tool for the surveys of inscriptions, releasing of the film on the screens, virtual reality in the cinema, survey from an overhead point, survey from a subzero point, computer effects in the cinema, box for storage of movie film, estimate on a film-making, mechanical effects in the cinema, inscription on a background of the action, treatment of movie film in a laboratory, press for agglutination of tape, rails for an operator transport.
It is necessary to mark that "Cinema dictionary" contains also quarternary terms that are created on the basis of double-base word-combinations: manager by the actor department of film studio, copy of megas copic format of movie film, copy of the diminished format of movie film, focal plane of the optical system; doubler of actor for difficult tricks, doubler of actor for setting of light, loading of movie film in a film channel, lens with variable focal distance, helper of operator of aiming the focus.
As Svitlana Lokaychuk marks, presence in terms-word-combinations three or more components testify about the use of a few more simple terms or word-combinations for more detailed specification of concept [6, p. 73]. Such multicomponent constructions are created mainly on principle of successive syntactic connection between their elements.
Terms-word-combinations are comfortable means of extraction of differential features of base concept during systematization of terms of cinematographic art. Exactly terms-word-combinations are able with most plenitude to represent the necessary differential lines of the named concept, "by them easier than by other word-formation facilities, to show belonging to the classification row formed on the genre type relation of concepts" [4, p. 132]. For example, functioning of term cinema is determined by the features of its combinations with dependent words-adjectives: the animation cinema, Afro- American cinema, free cinema, extreme cinema, intellectual cinema, interactive cinema, little budgetary cinema, marginal cinema, animated cinema, independent cinema, mutecinema, panoramic cinema, parallel cinema, juvenile cinema, underground cinema, poetic cinema, direct cinema, extended cinema, christmas cinema, sporting cinema, stereoscopic cinema.
Tendency to creation of the slender structural semantical system by dividing of genre concepts into the type and establishment of relations between them can be educed within the limits of every thematic group of terms of cinematographic art. For example, names of films, are motivated by their certain characteristic features, specific of creation and spheres of the use: biographic film, productive film, military film, street film, gangster film, gerontology film, hybrid film, mountain film, gothic film, detective film, exploiter film, woman film, yellow film, historical film, chamber film, criminal film, cult film, science fiction film, nostalgic film, parfume film, subconscious film, full-length film, political film, constabulary film, pornographic film, adventure film, samurai film, non-commission officer film, teary film, judicial film, prison film, lost film, feminism film, feature film, wide screen film.
For specific differentiation of genre concepts current relative adjectives or adjectives formed from terms are often taken. Quality adjectives are used in composition terms rarely, probably, because of their unterminological origin. Besides, they are desemantical to some level, because they do not name direct quality, but express a general, withstand, unchanging sign (it is impossible to form the degrees of comparison from them ), for example: free cinema, yellow film, romantic film, black film.
The analysis showed that the cored word sorted out the systematical function, as it expressed genre concept, while an attribute carried out a classification role -names a specific sign. Terms-word-combinations, "formed by combination of adjective with a noun are the proof forms of nominations that are characterized by a conciseness and semantic unity" [9, p. 146].
As components of hyponym paradigm atributives express functions, setting, structure of the noted cinematographic realities: apparatus – filming, cinema projection; drama historical, suit, salon; survey – model, pavilion, frame – accurate; filming – stereoscopic, ceytrafer; comedy English, jazz, eccentric, mad; editing – American, interframe, parallel; plan – American, cinematographic; series – gold, pink; scenario ferrous, stage-director.
Lexico-semantic organization of analytical terms grounds to set off them to lexically limit word-combinations, the characteristic sign of which is that the place of one of components takes not any words of corresponding category, but only some lexemes of certain semantic group or closed row [4, p. 104]. It is a variety of proof word-combination, the components of that are united on certain lexical and grammatical rules in accordance with the laws of valency, what "called to fasten that connection of things or ideas, that exists in reality" [9, p. 146]. Due to the degree of semantic penalty of lexemes terms-word-combinations can be grouped in two kinds.
1. Terminological folding word-combinations - relatively free word-combinations, integrity of which is predetermined by firmness in the use. Among them we distinguish:
- terms-word-combinations that do not contain reinterpreted components, id est every word in such formation is a term: instrument room to the audio recording, inside shot editing, diffusive screen, long-focus filming lens, record film, fatscopic stand, survey take, kashyrovaniy shot, cinematographic frame, the contrtypuvannya of film, a short film, animated machine-tool, wideangle lens, frame-accurate survey, full-length film, projection lenticulated screen, display of movie film, stage-director scenario, stereoscopic filming, stereoscopic cinema, stereophonic phonogram, photo of movie actor, photo ceytrafer filming, wide screen film.
- terms-word-combinations with one resemantic component that can be not term: afocal system, free cinema, hybrid film, mountain film, speaker text, director of film, second cinema renaissance, screen forms, woman film, yellow film, playing film, historical film, suit drama, assembling sheet, mad comedy, independent cinema, parfume film, period of little picturing, subconscious film, poetic cinema, adventure film, direct cinema, extended cinema, teary film, draft editing. Creation of terms of such type is motivated by semantics of their elements.
2. Terminological irresolvable word-combinations, motivation of their components is effaced a little, reinterpreted, it is accepted to name them terminological phraseological units [4, p. 105]: tenth muse, effect of dizziness, effect of presence, ferrous scenario, gold series, gold crossing, mile opera, kiss in a diaphragm, factory of dreams. In the cases of phraseology nomination the semantic structure of term has original stylistic expressiveness.
So, the great deal of terms-word-combinations that have two-, three- and multicomponent structure is presented in the "Cinema dictionary" of Volodymyr Myslavskyy; they are created by different models, where constituents are united on the basis of subordinate grammatical connection. The feature of double-base terms is that they are characterized by high frequency of the use and assist formation of multicomponent term units, that are on a limit with determinations of concepts. The far of varieties of cinemaartistic objects stimulated the necessity of nomination of every concept and grant of advantage to the analytical terms, as uniting possibilities of words give an opportunity to form the row of concepts on the basis of one lexeme. Analytical terms execute not only a nomination task, but also help to outline the volume of concept that they mark. Both terms and words of unterminological character are in the complement of terminological word-combinations. Despite the fact that terms-word-combinations are characterized by the different degree of semantic discernability, independence of their separate components is weak or quite lost, that is why by the nature of their meaning they approach to a separate word.
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