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"Problems of Ukrainian Terminology"
Gymer N. Compound names as a productive name type in terminology of cosmetics and cosmetology // Website of TC STTS: Herald of L'viv Polynechnic National University "Problems of Ukrainian Terminology". – 2014. – # 791.
Lviv State University of Internal Affairs
COMPOUND NAMES AS A PRODUCTIVE NAME TYPE IN TERMINOLOGY OF COSMETICS AND COSMETOLOGY
© Gymer N. O., 2014
Compound names as a productive name type in terminology of cosmetics and cosmetology are characterized and analyzed in the article. A high productivity of compound names in term system of cosmetics and cosmetology is introduced first of all by reveal of universal general linguistic tendency concerning liquidation of contradictions between a limited quantity of nominative means and unlimited quantity of name objects with the usage of word combinations in a nominative function, as a word combination has the same nominative function with a word.
Key words: professional vocabulary of cosmetics and cosmetology, terminological derivations, compound terms, multi-component term elements.
Nowadays the need to develop our own national professional vocabulary of cosmetics and cosmetology, new professional names has arisen and to arrange already present names into a clear system, which has to provide the cosmetic branch and a cosmetology as a separate science with specific terms.
General issues of terminology in the Ukrainian linguistics have been studied by
L. Boiarova, T. Kyiak, I. Kochan, A. Kryzhanivska, G. Matsiuk, T. Panko, L. Symonenko and others. Systematic of terminology was also overlooked by S. Bulyk-Verkhola, V. Vynogradov, M. Zarytskyy, T. Kandelaki, G. Nakonechna, F. Nikitina, V. Ovcharenko, V. Piletskyy and others. The borrowings in the Ukrainian scientific-technical terminology have been studied by I. Kochan, G. Krakovetska, O. Medvedieva, V. Piletskyy, Z. Taran. The rating issues of terminological systems have been studied by K. Gorodenska, T. Mykhailova, O. Taranenko. The peculiarities of terminological name have been studied by T. Zhuravliova, V. Zvegintsev, L. Palamarchuk, T. Prystaiko, V. Prokhorova, A. Superanska and others. The linguistic analysis of terms vocabulary with the usage of informational technology has been performed by E. Skorokhodko, T. Kyiak, S. Shelov and others.
Thematic justification is conditioned by the need of complete and comprehensive analysis of professional vocabulary of cosmetics and cosmetology, as the analysis of compound names in terminology of cosmetics and cosmetology has not yet been an object of a special study. Functioning of these term units in scientific and productive branches and also their wide usage in general linguistic communication determines the introduction of general and specific patterns of cosmetics and cosmetology vocabulary system forming.
The objective of the research is to characterize and analyze the compound names as a productive type of name in terminology of cosmetics and cosmetology. A high productivity of compound names in term system of cosmetics and cosmetology is introduced first of all by reveal of universal general linguistic tendency concerning liquidation of contradictions between a limited quantity of nominative means and unlimited quantity of name objects with the usage of word combinations in a nominative function, as a word combination has the same nominative function with a word.
The knowledge development as to the certain object certainly causes the necessity of its representing in the vocabulary, which is also possible by joining the certain linguistic units and specifiers. In such a way an analytical name with explicit expressed elements of meaning has been formed. Specifiers as a rule are certain terms or at least are understandable for everyone, that’s why the compound term is motivated, which is very important for a term. Explicitness of scientific notion presenting gives an opportunity to somehow trace the mutual connections between its components, which express belonging to a classification range, organized mainly by the principle of gender and typical hierarchy.
The theory of a compound term has an ancient enough history and a lot of unsolved till now theoretical issues. S. Yermolenko, V. Leichyk, D. Lotte, V. Marchenko, V. Grechko, P. Grytsenko have carried out the research as to the nature of compound terms. T. Gorshkova  has made an attempt to interpret general peculiarities of terms-combinations, taking as a basis the linguistics theory as to the free word combination, which exist in the language in the form of grammatical models, used for sentence-building, by means of which a theory is formed, and phraseological unit as a linguistic unit, which is formed as a result of a free word combination semantic change, which lies in a basis of a phraseological unit.
B.M. Golovin considers that every time when a term is used it is correlated by our mentality with the same subject in one of the aspects of its practical and scientific meaning or with other subjects that belong to one established type [2, p. 57–63]. It is confirmed by existence of compound terms in dictionaries – term vocabulary.
On the modern stage of linguistics development the methods of compound terms distinguishing from the text is not worked out enough. Such criteria of distinguishing are defined: definitive, criterion of conceptual integrity, informational, statistic, semantic, criterion of logical theorems. The mentioned criteria, defined by representatives of different scientific branches, on the different linguistic material are not the integral methods. T. A. Zhuravliova considers that while distinguishing the compound terms from the text, the general one must be the semantic analysis of the text units from the point of view of the integrity of their meaning, correspondence of the notion content to the certain branch of knowledge . While distinguishing the compound terms from the texts it is necessary to consider such aspects:
● correspondence to the scientific concept;
● dictionary definitions;
● frequency of using in the texts.
The general distinctive feature of compound terms, which allows to group them into a separate class (compound terms), is a connection with a certain scientific or scientific and natural notion, which is too complicated for its identification with simple term. V. Marchenko considers [4, p. 36–40] that a complex internal correlation in the sphere of notions makes this method the most productive and perspective.
It is easier to express the belonging to classification range, which is grounded on gender and typical correlation of the notions. A word combination is not a syntactically independent unit, it can be considered only as a result of abstraction of expressed sides of the reality from the context, in which the act of predication can be performed – affirmation or negation of something.
According to the structure word combinations are divided into simple terms, composite terms and compound terms. While analyzing the compound terms, which are the part of a specialized vocabulary of cosmetics and cosmetology, we divide them into simple and compound.
Among the simplest by the form two compound terms in terminology of cosmetics and cosmetology according to the morphological status of the components we distinguish such productive models. These two-component models form compound terms, which express gender and typical relations of hyponyms and hyperon. The most productive is an attributive model “an adjective + a noun”.
1) “an adjective + a noun” (À + N):
oxygen cosmetics, silk cream-powder, creamy blush, smoothing serum, Eau de Toilette, renewing mask, nourishing cream, daily cream, apparatus cosmetology, laser rejuvenation, enzyme pealing, emollient lotion, tonic-gel, dividing mascara, compact powder.
Next model by the level of productivity is a substantive model a noun + a noun in a Genitive Case (with a preposition or without).
2) “a noun + a noun in a Genitive Case” ( N+Ng):
vellaformers imposition, face cleaning, skin lifting, skin polishing, hairdo modeling, defects masking, wrinkles liquidation, system of cosmetics, system of rejuvenation. Example: “… skin system follows the structure of arterial and vein net, forming also three interlacements. Lymph cleans the cells from the toxins, removes the toxins from the body and participates in the system of immune protection of the body” [5, p. 66]
In compound terms of this structural model – specifier of a basic component, which is a noun in a Genitive Case, is a verbal expression of one of the differential seme. Example: CLEANING – the process of an effective removing of cosmetics, fat and dirt off the skin. It cleans the skin, softens it, and leaves the feeling of cleanliness and freshness [5, p. 64]. FACE CLEANING – a cosmetic procedure, which is performed in beauty salon or at home. Doctor-cosmetologist prescribes such a procedure in cases of acne, pores dirt or blockage. The procedure is aimed at the skin cleaning of skin fat, dirt and dead cells. There are different types of cleaning: mechanical (manual), apparatus (vacuum, ultrasound, galvanic) [5, p. 56].
3) “a noun + a noun in a Genitive Case with a preposition for” (N+ for Ng):
gel cleanser (gel for cleaning), nail polish (polish for nails), lip gloss, body lotion, cuticle peeling, mascara, lip liner, make-up remover lotion, sponge for make-up, eye cream, shaving gel, bath salt, shower cream, face wipes, brush for a lipstick, cleansing tonic, body scrub, slimming thermogel.
4) “ a noun + a noun in a Genitive Case with a preposition against” (N+ against Ng):
stretch mark cream (cream against stretch marks), anti-aging cream, sun protection (protection against the sun), anti-wrinkle mask, anti-burns milk, anti-wrinkle lifting, cream-stimulator against scars.
ANTI-DAMAGE PASTE is a cosmetic and hygienic oral and dental care on the basis of a suspension of abrasive-polishing materials in water-glycerin solutions of gel-formers and surface-active substances [5, p. 231].
5) “a noun + a noun in an Ablative Case with a preposition with” ( N+with Na.):
biotonic with phytohormones, shampoo-conditioner, oil mask, cream with phytoextracts, hydromilk with Aquaftem, cream-hommage with clay, mask-revitalizing with guarana, cleanser with tea extract, mini-spray with perfumes, tonic with phytohormones, capsules with vitamins.
MASK WITH ALGAE – mask with the usage of shredded algae. It nourishes skin with a rich complex of microelements, the basic of which is iodine [6, p. 97].
Model “a noun + a noun in an Ablative Case with a preposition with” – substantive, with an action specification.
Two-component compound terms with a basic component, a noun in a Nominative Case of singular and plural, belong namely to word combinations or primary word combinations, which are formed on the basis of semantic and grammatical valence of the basic component (under the influence of its categorical meaning) and can exist out of the sentences. Such word combinations are recognized by the linguists within derivative syntax, revealing the systemic relations between different syntactic units, which corresponds to the principle of systematic description in linguistics, and establishes general patterns in internal organization of word-forming and syntax.
So, two-component terms in terminology of cosmetics and cosmetology are built on the basis of two general structural models: attributive (“an adjective+a noun”) and substantive (“a noun+a noun in indirect cases”). The construction principle of two-component terms in the structural models is a concretization of the basic component.
On the basis of primary word combinations we form substantive derivative word combinations, a dependant component of which is defined by the valence of basic verbal and adjectival nouns, and simultaneously a word combination keeps a relation with a complex sentence. This type of word combinations is also productive, where the basic component is a verbal noun in a Nominative Case of singular form and dependant one is a Genitive Case of a singular form.
Three-component constructions of terms are built according to such schemes as:
Among three-compound word combinations in terminology of cosmetics and cosmetology the most spread is a construction with a scheme: (A+A+Nn). In compound terms, formed by the way of complication of a simple word combination, an adjective, which takes part in the forming of a term, specifies its meaning. The specifier of a simple word combination is one of the adjectives of the model an adjective + an adjective + a noun.
1. “an adjective + an adjective + a noun” (A+A+Nn ):
silk compact powder, pearly lipstick, soft matte lipstick, liquid lipstick, moisturizing cooling mask. We can compare the change of semantics with adding to the two-component model an adjective + a noun one more specifier:
COSMETIC PRODUCT is a cosmetic, that is allowed to be used as a certain cosmetic form [5, p. 10], MEDICAL COSMETIC PRODUCT is a pharmacological product, which is allowed by the Pharmacological Committee of the Ministry of Health to be used with the purpose of treatment and prophylaxis of the pathology of skin and its appendages [5, p. 10], MEDICAL PROPHYLACTIC COSMETIC PRODUCT is a cosmetic, allowed to be used with the purpose of prevention and correction of cosmetic defects and some pathologic conditions of skin and its derivatives as a certain cosmetic form [5, p. 10].
2. “an adjective + a noun + a noun in a Genitive Case with a preposition for” (A+ N+ for Ng):
foam-forming styling mousse, sunscreen for face, moisturizing gel for sunburn, non-surgical facial peeling.
3. “an adjective + a noun + a noun in an Ablative Case with a preposition with” (A+ N+ with Na.):
strengthening gel with microspheres, anti-cellulite express-gel with hormones, intensive massager with attachments.
Among three-component structures there are terms, formed by the model a noun + a noun + a noun. They identify single complex notions and phenomena, which need description method of name.
4. “a noun + a noun + a noun (in a Genitive and Ablative Case with prepositions)” (N+ with Na.+ Ng): cream-homage with sesame clay, mask-revitalizing with guarana extract.
Compound terms models mentioned above are the basic among three-component models in cosmetics and cosmetology terminology.
Multi-component term were formed by the way of maximal complication of term units of a simple structure, and that’s why they are characterized by certain types of relations. Besides the descriptiveness and somewhere even full explanations of a notion the semantic integrity is also typical for them: feet gel-velotonic with antibacterial effect, anti-aging intensive cream for areas around the eyes and lips, concentrated anti-aging serum for face.
MASKING MOISTURIZING CREAM FOR AN OILY AND PROBLEMATIC SKIN is a cream that contents soothing ingredients. It controls activity of sebaceous glands and masks fatty shine. There is an antiseptic effect on bacteria which cause acne. Active components: Echinacea purpurea extract, xanthan gum [5, p. 78]
Multi-component models of analytical method of cosmetic terms forming are not productive and non-typical, generally nominative units illustrate them. The more complex the structure of a compound term is, the less clear its limits are, and the more variants of its dividing are, the less stable its internal relations are, the more possibility of its structural variety in the process of functionality is, the more complicated is its expressiveness.
Linguistic peculiarities of compound terms show that a basic word, as a rule, is a generic name – a noun. Dependant words are semantic specifiers that form a typical name. These functions are performed either by an adjective or by a noun in a Genitive Case, which also has an attributive meaning of belonging. Rarely a noun can be in an Ablative Case, when it is necessary to clear out an instrument of action. Practically in every compound term there are verbal nouns, which by their semantics are equal to a forming verb.
Compound names as a type of the term are presented in terminology of cosmetics and cosmetology sufficiently. Two- and three-component word combinations have quantitative preference. The principle of compound terms forming is a specification of a basic component. The quantity of models within a certain structural type increases with the increasing of components number. The most multi-component terms are the linguistic formations.
So, the method of nomination is performed by means of syntactic word-forming methods, which can be attributed to a number of traditional ones in a native science language.
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