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Herald

of L'viv Polytechnic National University

"Problems of Ukrainian Terminology"

 817


Vus M. Ukrainian biological terminology in the aspect of semantic derivation //  Website of TC STTS: Herald of L'viv Polynechnic National University "Problems of Ukrainian Terminology". 2015. # 817.


 

Mariya Vus

Ivan Franko National University of Lviv

 

UKRAINIAN BIOLOGICAL TERMINOLOGY IN THE ASPECT OF SEMANTIC DERIVATION

 

Vus M. I., 2015

 

In the article Ukrainian biological terminology is reviewed in aspects of semantic derivation as a productive way of replenishment Ukrainian dictionary. The features of terminologization, determinologization and reterminologization and their importance in biological terminology are described.

Keywords: Ukrainian language, biological terminology, semantic derivation, termino-logization, determinologization, reterminologization.

 

Regarding the fact that one of the priorities of modern Ukrainian linguistics is to research qualitative and quantitative lexical changes, interlanguage mobility and vocabulary migration, the interest of scholars towards the notion of semantic derivation as a productive way of lexical language composition permanently grows. At the current stage of semantic derivation studies there is a demand for studying its manifestations in various terminological systems: publishing (M. R. Protsyk), economics (O. P. Vynnyk), informatics (L. M. Filiuk), cosmetics and cosmetology (N. O. Himer), linguistics (N. A. Liashuk), medicine (N. Z. Tsisar), music (S. Z. Bulyk-Verkhola), pedagogics (T. O. Bevz), radio engineering (I.M.Kochan), physics (I. R. Protsyuk), etc. The issue of biological terminological system has been previously discussed by O. L. Bilka and L.O.Symonenko. Nonetheless, main attention has been concentrated on the question of terminologization, whereas determinologization and reterminologization have been largely ignored. Thus, there seems to be a clear need for integral analysis of dynamic processes that take part in the field of biological terminology. 

The aim of the present research is to characterize biological terminology on the part of terminologization, determinologization and reterminologization processes.

The term semantic derivation is viewed as a complex multi-faceted process of generating new meanings of words which leads to reconstruction of word semantic structure and generally influences lexical and semantic language system, makes it dynamic and able to rapidly react to changes in extralinguisticreality simultaneously reflecting them [12, p. 28]. Thus, it entails new semantic content of material form available in language.

Terminology is a fertile ground for observing the phenomenon of semantic derivation. Lions share of terms in many terminological systems is formed in this way because at the initial stage of development each science starts with notions of everyday being. Consequently, almost in each terminological system there are special names which appear to be generally used words by their genetic nature [7, p. 196].The phenomenon of semantic derivation in biological terminological system is caused by the fact that biology, as one of the branches of scientific cognition, is closely related to everyday life and its terminology is in constant interaction with generally used vocabulary. [8, p. 77]. 

In the process of terminologization metaphorically reconsidered terms of generally used vocabulary become biological terms, for example thosedenoting pieces of clothing: manzhetka (ladys mantle), tunika (tunic flower), mantiya (mantel), poyas (belt); tools:mitla (broom), koshyk (cup), topirets (hatchet), vereteno (spindle), holka (needle); everyday items: bokal (cup), zontyk (umbel, parasol), koshyk (cup, basket), korobochka (box), liyka (waterpot), sumka (bag), podushka (pillow); names of buildings, constructions and their elements: sklepinnia (arch), stinka (wall), porih (threshold), peretynka (membrane), nisha (niche); abstract notions: spokiy (tranquility), plach (cry), son (dream); names related to human activity: kosaryky (harvestmen), orhanizator (organizer), pioner (pioneer), vodiy (driver) and others.

Other terminological systems also become donors for biological terminological system. In the process of reterminologization terms from other fields become additionally loaded with biological content. Thus, the terms from the following fields are functioning in terminology under analysis: astronomy aberatsiya (aberration), teleskop (telescope);architecture mozayika (mosaic),piramida (pyramid);mathematics konus (cone), khorda (chord), synus (sine); chemistry valentnist (valency); linguistics abreviatsiya(abbreviation); electric power industry spaika (adhesion); technical terms antena (antenna), lokator (locator), aparat (apparatus), mekhanism (mechanism).

The process of reterminologization is not single-sided, since biological terms actively supplement terminological systems of other fields, such as informatics: virus (virus), pamiyat (memory), riy (swarm); physics: vyrodzhennia(degeneracy); geology: skelet (skeleton); economics: obolonka (shell), kanibalism (cannibalism); pedagogics: parost (sprout); legal studies: imunitet (immunity); marketing: zhyttevyitsykl (life cycle), DNK (DNA), zrilist (maturity); technical terminology has been supplemented with the following terms:stopokhidnyi (plantigrade), amfibia (amphibian), klon (clone) and others.

Progress dynamics in intellectual and production sphere of society triggered rapid adaptation of terminological vocabulary in vocabulary arsenal of generally used language. This process was named determinologization. The following biological terms entered general literary language: arteriya (artery), mutatsiya (mutation), symbioz (symbiosis), vyvodok (brood), rudyment (rudiment),skelet (skeleton), puls (pulse), zarodok (embryo), adrenalin (adrenalin), atrofia (atrophy), HMO (GMO), instynkt (instinct), DNK (DNA), nakliovuvannia (chitting), etc.

The phenomenon of determinologization in the Ukrainian language reveals two important tendencies in its development: language democratization, which becomes evident in rising expressiveness and figurativeness, as well as intellectualization, which consists of a variety scientific terms assimilation by general literary language.

It might be concluded that semantic derivation preserves its topicality and productiveness in biological terminological system and general literary language and reveals potential embedded in certain terms and in language in general. New semantic formations mirror linguistic picture of the world as well as draw missing fragments and color the whole picture with new shades according to time demands and epoch tastes [12, c.30]. Research of meanings actualized in the process of semantic derivation allows to consider the issues of language and society interaction, to quickly react to language dynamics and to define the peculiar features of its semantic development.

 

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