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of L'viv Polytechnic National University
"Problems of Ukrainian Terminology"
Bulyk-Verkhola S., Tehlivets Y. The genus-species organization of the Ukrainian musical terminology // Website of TC STTS: Herald of L'viv Polynechnic National University "Problems of Ukrainian Terminology". – 2015. – # 817.
Sofia Bulyk-Verkhola, Yuliya Tehlivets
Lviv Polytechnic National university
The genus-species organization of the Ukrainian musical terminology
© Bulyk-Verkhola S. Z., Tehlivets Y. V., 2015
Herein the subsumption relations between Ukrainian musical terms are investigated, the types of oppositionens between the terms, the peculiarities of the structure of hyperonyms and hyponyms are clarified.
Keywords: Ukrainian language, Ukrainian musical terminology, hyper-hyponymic relations, hyperonym, hyponym, the types of oppositions.
Modern Ukrainian musical terminology is relatively stable lexico-semantic system envisaged by tradition and it is improved gradually.
Systematic approach to terminology requires the selection of all units that form the system, and relations between the words and the groups of words on the basis of common features or opposition of their values. Terms express the essence of concepts and transmit communications between them – genus-specific, part and whole, contiguity in space or time etc.
The genus-species cognation of group of concepts means their subordination to the general family concept in relation to that all of them are specific. A specific concept coincides with family one in relation to basic features, but has one or a few additional specific signs that specify content or limit the volume of the corresponding concept.
The genus-species relations between Ukrainian musical terms are investigated; the types of oppositions between the terms, the peculiarities of the structure of hyperonyms and hyponyms are clarified.
Hyper-hyponymic relations are considered on the example of thematic groups of the musical terms.
For example, the concept of the musical instruments is generic in the group “musical instruments”. According to the system of classification of musical instruments it is possible to distinguish the following groups depending on the source of sound:
1. Percussion instruments are divided into two sub-groups on the basis of the source of sound: à) idiophones –variations of the instrument’s body is the source of sound (bell, xylophone, triangle, cymbals, castanets, maracas, gong); b) membranophones – (drum, timpani).
2. Stringed (chordophones) – the source of sound is oscillation of the strained string (or of a few strings). The following subtypes are distinguished: à) plucked instruments (harp, lute, bandura, torban, domra, mandolin); b) the bow (violin, viola, cello, bass); ñ) percussion (cymbals) etc.
3. Wind (aerophon) – the source of acoustic vibrations is the post of air. They are divided into such subtypes: à) flute (ocarina, block flute, pipe, orchestral flute etc.); b) reeded. There are one reeded cane (clarinet and saxophone) and double (oboe, bassoon, zurna); c) with complex mechanics (organ, accordion); d) mouthpieces (trumpet, trombone, French horn, horn, trembita). This classification of wind instruments is more consistent than wood division (flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon) and brass (horn, trumpet, trombone, tuba) etc.
4. Air (organ, bagpipes).
5. The reed-pneumatic (accordion, accordion, concertina, harmonium).
6. Electric - with a device to amplify sound (electric guitar, electric domra).
7. Electronic - sound sources are electronic devices (keyboards, Martenot’s waves).
In the group "names of singers voices" the generic concept is the singers’ voice, the species – men's, women's, and children's voices (by physiological signs).
In the group "occupation, profession, position" the generic concept is musician, species – singer, composer, musicologist (by character of classes). Subspecies to the concept “performer” is instrumentalist and vocalist. Sectional for the concept instrumentalist is a pianist (subgroups - piano soloist and accompanist) playing on the strings (subgroups - violinist, violist, cellist etc.). Player on the percussion instruments (subgroups – bassoonist, clarinetist, piper etc.), drummer (subgroups – playing on the tambourine, percussion etc.).
In the group "names of musical groups" the generic concept is band, species – vocal, instrumental group. Species concepts are divided into the subtypes – orchestra, choir, ensemble, the groups - symphonic, brass, chamber, pop bands; male, female, mixed choirs.
The conducted analysis of musical terms shows that the main functions of in the terminological systems are systematization of terms and interpretation of values. Research witnessed importance of relations in the Ukrainian musical terminology, they predetermine hierarchical character of terminological system, provide clear differentiation of concepts.