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Herald

of L'viv Polytechnic National University

"Problems of Ukrainian Terminology"

 842


Ginzburg M. The rules of -verb usage in professional Ukrainian texts //  Website of TC STTS: Herald of L'viv Polynechnic National University "Problems of Ukrainian Terminology". 2016. # 842.


 

Mykhajlo Ginzburg

Gas Transportation Institute, Kharkiv

 

HE RULES OF -VERB USAGE IN PROFESSIONAL UKRAINIAN TEXTS

 

Ginzburg M. D., 2016

 

In the article, the meanings/sub-meanings of Ukrainian -verbs are studied, their four basic meanings (reflexive, impersonal, passive and active) and nine sub-meanings of the reflexive meaning are separated and the non-controversial terminological system is proposed. It is shown that due to polysemy of -verbs, the same word form can express various meanings. Criteria enabling us to clearly distinguish natural Ukrainian constructions with such verbs from intruded constructions are suggested.

Keywords: Ukrainian language, professional text, -verb, lexical meaning, reflexive meaning, impersonal meaning, passive meaning, active meaning.

 

Significant difficulties for correct drafting and adequate understanding the professional Ukrainian texts are caused by verbs with affix - (hereinafter referred to as the -verb), which represent about a third (33%) of the total number of Ukrainian verbs. While such verbs are a common Slavic linguistic phenomenon, each language has its own rules of their usage. The features of -verb usage that distinguish the Ukrainian language from the neighboring Russian and Polish ones, has been already stressed by Olena Kurylo and Sergii Smerechynskii. The latter has selected four types of constructions with -verbs and has identified those of them that are inherent in the Ukrainian folk language, the most widespread in it and became its characteristic feature, and those of them that are not inherent in it. The usage of the -verbs is mentioned in the papers of Yurii Shevelv Ivan Vychovanets, Kateryna Horodenska and other linguists. However, due to a different understanding of their norms, professional texts abound in constructions, which are not inherent in the Ukrainian language.

The purpose of this article is to classify the basic constructions with -verbs, to assess them in terms of the Ukrainian language norms and to give practical recommendation to authors of the Ukrainian professional texts, basing on the papers of the above mentioned and other linguists.

The article defines three main groups of -verbs: derivative from verbs without , derivative from other parts of speech, verbs underivated in the modern language, as well as four methods of creating them (postfixal. prefixal-postfixal, suffixal-postfixal, prefixal-suffixal-postfixal ones) are studied. It is noted that owing to polysemy of -verb, the same word form conveys different meaning depending on the context. Therefore, the speaker shall clearly distinguish the specific inherent meanings of the Ukrainian -verb from intruded ones.

It is shown that basic and initial meaning of -verbs is reflexive one (which in the broadest sense is the meaning of the intransitive process centered, closed in a logical subject which simultaneously can be a logical object. Nine sub-meanings of the reflexive meaning are selected that convey different shades of reflexivity from processes centered, closed in a logical subject to a wider general correlation with a logical subject, including its permanent and characteristic intransitive process abilities (properties). The names of these sub-meanings available in other papers are analyzed and the system Ukrainian terms are proposed for them. These terms are built in compliance with the model, which, on the one hand, through generic characteristic exemplifies the relations of these specific concepts with the generic concept "reverse meaning", and, on the other hand, clearly shows the difference between other subordinate concepts through delimiting characteristic of each specific ones. Five of these terms are generally accepted, one is selected from the options available in the literature, but three are proposed in view of the systematic requirement.

The basic possible constructions with -verbs in terms of the Ukrainian language norms are assessed and the following conclusions are made.

1. In Ukrainian professional texts -verbs should be used only for nominating intransitive processes that are processes which do not have a logical object separated from a logical subject. With the few exceptions they cannot be used for nominating transitive processes.

2 In subjective sentences the passive meaning is not inherent in Ukrainian -verbs in contrast to the Russian ones. They can be used only in the reflexive meaning which means a process that occurs on its own and that is independent of any external agent.

3. In subjectless sentences the active meaning is not inherent in Ukrainian -verbs in contrast to the Polish one. They can be used only in the impersonal meaning when we are talking about the state of nature or physical (mental) state of being, which does not arose as a result of his/her/its conscious will, consciously directed desire, that is self-sufficient, without regard to any agent.

 

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