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of L'viv Polytechnic National University
"Problems of Ukrainian Terminology"
Krymets O. Extralingual factors and dynamics semantic terms // Website of TC STTS: Herald of L'viv Polynechnic National University "Problems of Ukrainian Terminology". – 2016. – # 842.
National Technical University "Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute"
Extralingual factors and dynamics semantic terms
© Krymets O. M., 2016
The paper deals with problem of semantic dynamics of term under act of extra linguistic factors. Changes in the special scientific picture of the world of political science, by a result what transformation of semantic structure of term, origin of the new special meanings, neutralization of evaluation-expressive components, and also narrowing or expansion of meanings are studied. Influence of social changes on education and development of political science terminology are grounded.
Keywords: Ukrainian language, scientific field world view of political science, term, narrowing of meanings, expansion of meanings, estimating and expressive component.
The article deals with the problem of semantic term dynamics, which is influenced by extralinguistic factors on the material of terminology of political science. These Sociology more subjective compared to natural knowledge, they are more exposed to different ideologies, certain outlook, and highly responsive to changes in society. Sociology terminology transformed in different historical periods of social development, undergoing influence of extralinguistic factors. The result is not only the creation of new special units, and restructuring and semantic structure and the emergence of new meanings of existing terms.
In the terminology of political science article shows the influence of extralinguistic factors on the dynamics of the term in the context of the changes that took place in Ukrainian society over the past quarter century. Changing the semantic structure of timing values or complete its transformation occurs when comparing units that represent special scientific picture of political science in the second half of the XX and at the beginning of XXI century. Special scientific world of political science is social and scientific worldview, the core of which is a system of society as a whole. The transformation taking place in society is fully reflected in social and scientific and political picture of the world respectively. This is reflected in the other and sometimes completely new understanding of existing terms.
Analysis of special units terminology of political science enables to watch these semantic shift: shift of differential seme (annihilation of old and new), changing nuclear seme and completely different interpretation of certain concepts, new terminology values, in some cases - annihilation negative evaluative expressive value components.
The appearing of new terminological significance is observed in these units as democracy, discrimination and opposition. In particular, the term opposition. If the second half of the last century when the opposition meant the common name of parties, groups who opposed to the ruling party, group or government policy and parliamentary factions of political parties in the bourgeois countries, today the opposition is not just a group of individuals / organizations that are excluded from the decision-making authority and opposed political views and actions of the authorities but also the opposition political views and actions of a group of persons / organizations the views and actions of another group, preferably one that is represented in the government.
In addition, there are also semantic processes such as narrowing of the (corruption) or expansion (oligarchy) value. Complete replacement of the differential seme is seen in modern definitions of the term bureaucracy. If in the second half of the twentieth century this concept was interpreted as a system of governance that is characterized by isolation from the people and government officials based on caste, now bureaucracy means the hierarchically organized system of governance or the public with a special machine, endowed with specific functions and privileges. "Unchanged in this case remained nuclear seme - "management system".
In some cases, there was complete conversion of the output values of units: referendum, nationalism, revolution, which was to change not just the differential, but also nuclear seme. This indicates a quite different understanding of the same concepts in different periods of social development, but also shows the influence of the dominant ideology on society that fully reflected in the studied definitions of terms which are integral components of special scientific world politics.
The observed phenomenon allows the dynamic semantic transformation of political terms that demonstrate some extent of those changes that have taken place in a special scientific picture of the world under the influence of extralinguistic factors.
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