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"Problems of Ukrainian Terminology"
Polishchuk N. Activity of innovative processes in the vocabulary of modern media // Website of TC STTS: Herald of L'viv Polynechnic National University "Problems of Ukrainian Terminology". – 2016. – # 842.
Rivne State University of Humanities
Activity of innovative processes in the vocabulary of modern media
© Polishchuk N. O., 2016
In this the article terminological lexics is reviewed. This lexics has become an integral part of the language of contemporary massmedia. The lexical and semantic processes which take a place in the public relations at the beginning of the 21th century are discussed. Its thematic groups terminological lexics have been identified and features of usage in author texts are illustrated.
Keywords: Ukrainian language, terminological lexics, term, innovation, semantics, publicist text.
While exploring the lexical and semantic system of the Ukrainian language, modern linguists refer primarily to the field of media. The rapid development of modern mass media has made the mass media a main distribution channel of social information in modern society.
The role of publicism and language of media in the dynamics of contemporary Ukrainian vocabulary is constantly growing. The changes in the social structure of the state, democratization of all spheres of public life, the absence of censorship, the search for new means of expression have significantly affected the language of modern media. The thematic unboundedness of newspaper and publicistic style defines the extraordinary breadth and variety of its vocabulary. This contributes to the relaxed style of modern language of journalism, increased level of education, perfect knowledge of foreign languages. Language of publicism attests all of the radical changes taking place today in Ukrainian society. According to the O.A.Styshov, "It is no exaggeration to claim that the creation of modern Ukrainian “newspeak” is led by the journalism. It can be considered one of those powerful "crucibles" in which today a new model of literary Ukrainian language and a new exemplary linguistic norm, in particular a lexical and word-formative norms are "cooked"[9, p. 9].
The language of contemporary mass media reflects the multifunctionality of national language, the degree of intellectualization, in particular, through the dissemination of terms from different disciplines. Terminological vocabulary that is used in the professional fields and recorded in special dictionaries starts a new life in the language of the media. "Fixing this vocabulary in the studied sources is an indicator of the literary and regulatory terms adaptation, the test of strength, the resistance of borrowing, to the organic entry of Ukrainian language to the system of word creation" [9, p. 32].
Most noticeable place belongs to sociopolitical terms, the operation of which in the language of the media provides the characteristics of a today trend of intellectualization of the language.
New words and expressions were in sight of O.A.Styshova, O.A.Semenka, S.Y.Karavanskoho, Zh.V.Koloyiz, Z.E.Fominoyi. The term "social and political vocabulary" is served by many Ukrainian (A.A.Buryachok, V.V.Zhayvoronok, Mr. OleksandrMoroz, I.V.Holyavko, I.M.Kochan) and foreign (T.B.Kryuchkova, I.F.Protchenko, N.H.Yuzefovych) linguists. Relying on them, we explored the functioning of the social and political vocabulary and the terminology in the media and have made conclusions about which innovations of a political nature predominate in the language of media.
The object of the research is a social and political lexicon and the terminology in the language of modern mass media collected from the newspapers "DzerkaloTyzhnia", "Gazetapo-ukrainsky", "VysokyiZamok", "Ukrainska Pravda" during the period of 2013-2015; the subject of study are the functions of the analyzed units in newspaper text. The goal is to trace the emergence of a new vocabulary and terminology in the publications of political direction, to identify its thematic groups, find the peculiarities of its usage in a journalistic text.
Thus, in the newest mass media the terms of social and political sphere are concentrated around the concepts related to: trends in modern civilization development – multivectorness, globalization, European integration, etc., political campaigns, movements, doctrines - geopolitics, ethnic policy, terrorism, extremism, expansion, annexation, de-escalation, etc.; the social stratification of society - the lumpen, the proletariat, the elite, the bourgeoisie. Such lexical units in the text can take on new meanings or shades of meanings. For example: "Ex-President of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma, who for ten years of his presidency implemented a policy of "multivectorness", focusing on both the West and Russia, concluded that the United States is the most reliable ally of Ukraine" (DT number 23, 26.6.2014); "The extremists for years have threatened the employees of Charlie Hebdo. Therefore we have to defend the democratic values together"- said the president of France, Francois Hollande in a special appeal to the nation from the Elysee Palace due to the terrorist attack that took place in Paris on January 7th in the magazine Charlie Hebdo, and called on citizens to national unity in the face of terrorism "(U.p. 7 January 2015);"De-escalation of the conflict in the Donbass should involve the withdrawal of troops and equipment from the line of demarcation, which is enshrined by Minsk memorandum of 19 September 2014. On this the leaders of Ukraine, Germany and France - Petro Poroshenko, Angela Merkel and Francois Hollande agreed during a call "(DT ¹1, 16-23 January 2015); "Finally, when determining the political and patriotic sympathy in the Donbass region the distributive social vector was clearly delineated. The majority of supporters of the pro-Russian ideas are the pensioners, the unemployed and the lumpen proletariat from depressed areas of Donbass "(DT number 12, 4.4.2014).
Operation of social and political terminological lexicon in the language of modern publicism is closely associated with the emergence of neologisms that nominate numerous new realities and concepts generated by time. The emergence of lexical innovations is a permanent process and it is caused by new historical processes of state formation, formation of a modern thinking, the search of adequate means of linguistic expression. An exceptional role is played by the tastes of the speakers, to a certain extent - a language fashion. "Either there is a need in the word, the sign of a new concept (which itself and the need for which is always preceded by the word), or the need of replenishment of a semantic field of new or updated functional unit arose, or a new (additional or updated) content of the old concept (i.e. new seme) requires a new form, therefore, a new word "[1, p. 35]. Language of the mass media sub style of XXI century is enriched by lexical and semantic innovations, among which, according to O.A.Styshova neologisms of different status can be distinguished: 1) lexeme-neologisms; 2) text innovations.
According to the materials of modern media, such lexeme-neologisms as ideologeme, European integration, state, ethnic policy, geopolitics, genocide, ethnocide, state-building, deregulation, nation-building designate the processes, the phenomena and formation of state-building. Lexeme-neologisms, functioning in the language of modern mass media, implement its semantics, are spread in the language practice and have prospects of entering into the special and general language dictionaries. Let us compare: "Taking into consideration not the semantic content of a revolutionary and post-revolutionary rhetoric, not slogans or ideologisms (albeit chaotic and raw, and yet ideological), but the logic of events, then we could come to a simple conclusion: the authorities in Ukraine finally have lost their post-soviet reverence among the people "(D.t. ¹ 25, 07.11.2014); "Ukrainian State Ethnic Policy was never a conservative structure of the orthodox tradition, on the contrary, there always was a hint of tolerance and peaceful attitude to all representatives of national minorities" (V.Z. number 86, 19-25.06.2014).
Such lexemes of political nature as neoventuresome ("which is characterized by the new risky and questionable practices"), mandated ("which operates under a UN mandate"), political structuring ("registration process of new clear political structures"), de-oligarchisation (the process of elimination of oligarchs from the government), dollarization, "button-pusher" (a parliamentarian, who is voting for his/her absent colleague) "nepidpysant" (a person, who refuses to sign any document) are the text innovations. They are also associated with the awareness of the social and political processes that are taking place in the world and Ukraine, but do not have the status of potentially codified lexemes. These are the terms of ideology, politics, partially military affairs, paraphrases, commonly used names, metaphors, even proper names under which a set of political ideas and concepts, associations are found. It is those that build text innovations in which the word acquires the additional importance in a publicist style. Let us compare: "European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) has downgraded its forecast of the Ukrainian economy development for the second time and now expects its reduction to 0.5%. And also believes that the risks for the sustainable development of Ukrainian economy are the remaining problematic bank loans and a significant dollarization of the financial sector "(D.t. ¹16, 10.05.2013); "The urgent de-oligarchisation of the country is needed. And it has to be from “above” to prevent it “from below”, because then it will be with pitchforks, and most importantly - with a firearm in a wide range" (U.p. January 6, 2015). "The speaker of Ukrainian Parliament Vladimir Groisman promises to fight the parliamentarians, who vote for their absent colleagues. He gathers a working group of deputies and experts to develop the plan of changes to prevent and make the impersonal voting impossible" (U.p. February 2, 2015).
Along with the neologisms usage a process that is linked to the dynamics of the vocabulary of the modern Ukrainian language as the lexicon update deserves attention (in this case the word is no longer a historicism, it is used for the neutral category). It is well known that in certain periods in the life of society some words and sometimes even entire layers of vocabulary are used more actively than the others. Thanks to the growth in the frequency of use of relevant words that are specific to a particular historical epoch, inherent to a certain historical moment, the process of updating of the national lexicon is taking place. As O.A.Styshov remarks, "the main feature of this lexicon - is the transition of lexical units from the periphery to the core of the vocabulary, primarily due to the functional activity in the language of mass media" [9, p.32]. On the pages of periodicals one can find such actualized social and political terms as: lobby, lobbyist, parliament, speaker, dictatorship, consensus, council, city council, the governor, revenge, governance, Ukrainophobe, functionary, skepticism and others.
For example such terms as lobby, lobbyist (from Eng. “lobby”) are present in the Ukrainian language for a long time, but these words were never used by local politicians, they were used only in the scientific works and some articles about European parliamentarism. Today, the term lobby is as common as the terms parliament and parliamentarian, it is actively used in the modern mass media. The meaning of this word is somewhat far from the primary source - "agents of the big banks and industrial monopolies, which influenced the parliamentarians in the parliament lobby." In the "New dictionary of foreign words" (2007) term lobby is a "parliamentary legislative that secretly or openly represents the interests of any financial, industrial or national group" (NSIS, s.427). For example: "Another session of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, which earlier this week seemed to be victorious for Russia and painful for Ukraine, actually turned into a victory for the Ukrainian delegation. And a great insult for Russians, who are not accustomed to defeats in the information and lobbying front. There’s a very strong Russian lobby in PACE" (U.M. 01.30.2015).
The "Great Dictionary of Modern Ukrainian Language" (2007) explains the meaning of word “impeachment: it is the procedure of the involvement of senior officials of parliament to the court to get rid of their authority (VTSSUM, p. 493). In English, this word has more meanings, it is interpreted as: "the prosecution of a government employee in serious irregularities in the performance of official duties"; "elimination of a person, such as president or judge from the position because of a serious crime or other act or other gross violation". In the language of contemporary periodicals the term impeachment established itself with the change of the initial meaning according to the scope of use, for example: "One of the urgent tasks is the enactment of the law about impeachment to prevent the degeneration of the "sweet" president into another "bloody" one. Enough blood for us"(U.p. January 6, 2015).
Permanent social changes in the life of our country contributed to the emergence of a significant amount of English social and political lexicon and terminology in the language of contemporary political publicism, which are adapting in our language way too quickly. This is explained by a great role of the English speaking countries (primarily the US) in today's global social and political life, active cultural expansion of the US, and the introduction of democracy in Ukraine, parliamentary system and a market economy, the reality, in which English speaking countries have most experience in, that is why English it is the source of the respective special terminology. Borrowed from English, the words in the composition of social and political lexicon of the Ukrainian language are characterized by heterogeneity, peculiarity of stylistic and genre use. [9, p.17]. In the language of modern mass media during the aggravation of the political struggle between different parties and blocs English terms that describe concepts and realities related to the elections are actively functioning, for instance: primaries (from. Amer., Pl. Primaries <primary - "previous elections ") -" the preliminary stage of the presidential elections in the US; preliminary determination of a single candidate from the political party at election meetings; preliminary nomination of candidates for elections "; speechwriter (from Eng. speech - "language, speech" and Eng. write - "to write") - "a person who prepares the report and the speech for officials, businessmen, public figures"; words impregnations like ombudsman (from the Swedish ombudsman - "any representative of somebody’s interests" from ombudo - "Representative") - "in some countries a special official in the parliament, which monitors the legality of actions of state bodies and citizens' rights; in Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine it’s a Commissioner for Human Rights"). Such lexical units are absorbed directly from the source language with maximum approximation to the phonetics, grammar and spelling of the words. Let us compare: [Oleg Pokalchuk, social psychologist]: "A truly civil society would be holding among themselves a casting and through primaries would delegate the people into the politics. Partially it tries to do so, but in Ukraine it is still very young, inexperienced and romantic to make it qualified"(DT ¹ 33, 10.19.2014); "As a master of words, career diplomat Alexander Scherba wrote interviews, abstracts, speeches for the ministers, prime ministers, speakers and presidents. He was the main author of a 40-minute speech Petro Poroshenko gave to the US Congress "(DT number 46, 12.5.2014)."Children's Ombudsman Mykola Kuleba considers it necessary to allocate more money not to finance "outlived themself" orphanages, but reorient the budgetary support to prevent child abandonment" (EF December 25, 2015).
The language of modern mass media it is an active interaction and interpenetration of different functional styles and genres. In the language of Ukrainian periodicals the intensive use of bookish lexicon of political content also can be traced, because of the desire for the semantic accuracy and uniqueness, rational standard. Using such terms as Charter "a name of certain documents, declarations of social and political significance”, Assembly “general meeting of members of any international organization", grant "the share of loans provided on concessional terms as aid to developing countries or are in economic crisis ", etc., the accuracy of nomination is achieved, combined with objectivity, impartiality of the information, for example: "Since the beginning of March, almost immediately after the start of Russian aggression against Ukraine, the Energy Charter as a platform for exchange of information and increased transparency of transit flows began to attract attention to increased risks for gas supplies to Europe" (D.T. # 39, 23.10 .2014).
As the opposite process, the national media actively uses lexical units of the spoken variety of Ukrainian literary language, like: the security forces, militants, “trimming”, “kalashnyk”, "cyborg", "cyborgport", “pravoseky”, “ukry”, “ukropy”. The modern publicism that is highlighting the significant political events, phenomena, using appropriate lexicon, produces some evaluative attitude of the recipient of information to the depicted. For example: [Natalia Balyuk, editor of the weekly "High Castle"]: "If ATO is stalled, if our security forces executives who were recently called "weak forces" fail to act decisively, to give conscious instructions, then maybe it’s necessary to change something radically? "(V.Z. number 80, 05-11.06.2014); "Words like "Cyborg ","ukrop" today have become the symbols of indestructibility of Ukrainian spirit, an example of how Ukrainians can fight, an example, which will form a generation of Ukrainian soldiers. Defenders of the Donetsk airport shall be on the pages of Ukrainian history books", - the President of Ukraine Petro Poroshenko has claimed" (DT number 46, 12.5.2014).
Thus, the scope of modern Ukrainian mass media proves: it lives and evolves. The researched sources reflect the lexical and semantic processes that take place in the language of new mass media of political orientation as neologisation; update of lexical units that had been pushed to the periphery of the language system; the emergence of a significant number of foreign terms, particularly Anglicisms that too quickly adapt to the modern Ukrainian language. Because of the intensive use of lexicon mainly of a literary nature, the accuracy, objectivity is achieved and conversational lexical items indicate the search for new fresh names, the desire for emotionality and expressiveness.
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