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"Problems of Ukrainian Terminology"
Dutsiak I. Types of definitions on the content of information on the ratio of volumes of definable and contiguous concepts // Website of TC STTS: Herald of L'viv Polynechnic National University "Problems of Ukrainian Terminology". – 2017. – # 869.
L'viv PolytechnicNational University
Types of definitions on content of information about volume ratio of definable and contiguous concepts
© Dutsiak I. Z., 2017
The methods of definition construction are classified according to the information contained in them about relation of defined concept toward to the extension of contiguous concepts. The concepts are evaluated based on their informativeness and the number of words in them. Expediency of using different definitions is analysed for different aims. Drawn conclusion about expedience of the use of features of different definitions in planning of dictionaries constrution.
Keywords: Ukrainian language, definition, contiguous concepts, relation of concepts extension, explanatory dictionary.
The subject of research, results of which are presented in article, is systematization of types of definitions according to the information about volume ratio of definable and contiguous concepts that is contained in them. The basis for such systematization is that in a generic‑genus definition the designated concept is explained through the relation to the more general concept, and to concepts coordinated with the defined ones. At the same time, except these concepts the designated concept can be also subordinated to its concepts. According to it, there is a possibility to systematically consider all possible variants of attraction of contiguous concepts to process of a definition formulation. As a result it will give the chance to analyze features, advantages and lacks of a set of all possible definitions (according to the mentioned basis of their division) and to use this knowledge in dictionary work and in all types of information activity in which it is necessary to explain word meaning (the content of concepts, essence of subjects and the phenomena).
Research consisted of the following actions: 1) revealing of all possible variants of attraction general, coordinated and subordinated concepts to a definition formulation; 2) formulation for each of the revealed variants of examples of definitions, 3) estimation of correctness of the definitions received, comparison of their signs, revealing of advantages and lacks.
Owing to the research performance such results are received. It is shown that all possible variants of definitions (depending on about what relations of volumes of the defined concepts with contiguous to it, are in a definition) there are seven:
1. In definiens (a definition part in which the concept maintenance and consequently also value of a word corresponding to concept is opened) we fix relation only to one type of contiguous concepts – subordinating, that is more general.
2. In definiens we fix the relation only to one type of contiguous concepts – coordinated, that is to co-ordinated concepts.
3. In definiens we fix the relation only to one type of contiguous concepts – the subordinated, that is to less general, specific concepts.
4. In definiens we fix the relation to two types of contiguous concepts – subordinating and coordinated.
5. In definiens we fix the relation to two types of contiguous concepts – subordinating and subordinated.
6. In definiens we fix the relation to two types of contiguous concepts – subordinated and coordinated.
7. In definiens we fix the relation to all three types of contiguous concepts.
On the basis of the performed research it can be concluded that an informative potential of various definitions is not completely used in dictionary work. As an example we can cite those definitions in which less general concepts are used. Take an example of definition of number 3: furniture is a table, a case, a bed, a chair, a bench, a hanger and another similar ones, to be placed on/in their various subjects. This definition is optimal for mastering concepts of the highest level of abstraction. Mastering of such a dictionary should precede using the usual explanatory dictionary with generic-genus definitions – after all in order to understand generic‑genus definition it is necessary to understand general concept, and for its understanding – even more general, consequently, the whole chain of concepts that is more general from the defined one. It is obvious that dictionaries of this type have advantages, for example in educational process. So, during the planning of dictionary work it is necessary to differentiate the dictionaries created according to features of definitions.
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