| Staff | Address | Structure | Conference | Herald | Archive | Announcement |
of L'viv Polytechnic National University
"Problems of Ukrainian Terminology"
Krymets O. The polysemy of terms as a result of re-integration of scientific knowledge // Website of TC STTS: Herald of L'viv Polynechnic National University "Problems of Ukrainian Terminology". – 2017. – # 869.
National Technical University "Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute"
The Polysemy of Terms as a Result of Re-integration of Scientific Knowledge
© Krymets O. M., 2017
The process of scientific knowledge reintegration, resulting in the emergence of new meanings of terms is researched in this article. Semantic changes that occur during the reconsideration of the initial meaning are considered. It is proved that seme-motivator which can take the nuclear or peripheral place in the structures of initial and derivative meanings is the foundation of the aforementioned process. Scientific fields which motivate semantic processes of the current term transformation and the emergence of new terminological meanings are emphasized.
Keywords: Ukrainian language, term, seme-motivator, nuclear seme, peripheral seme, abstract notions, specific value.
The article is devoted to the reintegration process of scientific knowledge and the creation of new meanings as a case of study of special technique names. The emergence of technical units of terms motivates different scientific areas, both in cross-sectoral and distant fields: Physics, Mathematics, Medicine, Astronomy and others. As a result of rethinking of terms of Physics such special names as anode, cathode, lever, dipole, echo, polarization, reactor ferrite emerged in technical terminology. The terms formed in such a way indicate general technical terms and concepts of a special scientific field in electrical engineering, radio engineering, telecommunications, and computer equipment. To name objects and concepts in the field of technique such special redefined mathematical terms as differential, coefficient, parameters, projection, segment, cylinder, parallel, sector, utilities and others are used. Technical terms which result from the metaforization of special mathematical terms predominantly have general technical nature, in other words they define concepts which can be used in various fields of technology.
Quite distant terminology (biological and technical) and accordingly their semantic rows were connected in the process of rethinking and overlapping concepts of biological science to the notion of art. Terms for processes that occur in living organisms or indicate their physical characteristics, resulting in rethinking processes and physical characteristics in the art were identified. To indicate the technical terms such terms including biology, nutritious, adaptation, degradation, reversion, sensors, regenerate, nutritious, plantigrade, clone are used.
Reinterpreted medical special names in technology indicate defects in materials (ulcer, fistula), a variety of devices, tools (bandage, stethoscope, syringe, tube) and methods for detecting faults in the equipment, system (diagnosis, stetoskopiya). Several technical terms formed from rethinking names that belong to the field of astronomy, aberration collimator, reflector, satellite, terminator. In the process of technical names in the original sense that those features that are essential on the content of the original term are reinvented, updated. The basis for the creation of special technical name similarity might be a function or appearance of comparable objects. Logical and syntax schemes of structured class events or conjugation within the structure of real world objects in language can serve as a motive for rethinking - their subject-logical connections that reflect the linguistic experience of people. Logical connections are realized in common semes available in the original structures and values of the original terms. The new values are formed by rethinking of the original name of what is happening on the basis of similarity of function, meaning, implicit in the initial seven-motivators in derivatives may become pronounced. Seme-motivator may be a nuclear in a structure as well as in original and derivative meaning, or can be differential.
The terms denoting abstract concepts, in the process of semantic transformations mainly express specific concepts and are abstract in some cases. The peculiarity of semantics of words with an abstract meaning is the presence of only significant component meanings and a lack of denotative in their seme structure. Reconsidering of such concepts as differential, center, segment, cylinder, parallel, module that are abstract entities in mathematics, raises some semantic modifications in their meanings as a result of which there are new ones that are endowed with specific denotation and denote devices and facilities used in the technical field.
The active use of names that are integrated from one industry to another is appropriate for the terminology. Thus, there are some semantic processes that result in the emergence of new terminological meaning.
1. Anhlo-ukrainskyi tlumachnyi slovnyk z obchysliuvalnoi tekhniky, Internetu i prohramuvannia / [uklad. : E. I. Proidakov, L. A. Teplytskyi]. Vyd. 1. – K. : SoftPres, 2005.– 552 s. 2. Velykyi tlumachnyi slovnyk suchasnoi ukrainskoi movy / [uklad. i hol. red. V. T. Busel]. – K. : Irpin, 2001. – 1440 s. 3. Husev S. S. Nauka y metafora / S. S. Husev. – L. : Yzd-vo LHU, 1984. – 152 s. 4. Kalmûkova E. Y. O dynamyke metaforû v nauchnom style / E. Y. Kalmûkova // Fylolohycheskye nauky : Nauchnûe dokladû vûsshei shkolû. – 1974. – ¹ 2. – S. 83–88. 5. Rodzevych N. S. Metafora – spilne dzherelo tvorennia terminolohichnoi leksyky v slov’ianskykh i zakhidnoievropeiskykh movakh / N. S. Rodzevych // Doslidzhennia z leksykohrafii ta leksykolohii : respublik. mizhvidom. zb. / In-t movoznavstva im. O. O. Potebni AN USSR. – Vyp. 1. – K., 1965. – S. 137–156. 6. Slovnyk-dovidnyk z elektrotekhniky, avtomatyky, promyslovoi elektroniky i metrolohii / [uklad. L. V. Kozak] ; red. V. P. Khorolskyi. – Kryvyi Rih : VAT Kryvbasavtomatyka, 1997. – 280 s. 7. Suchasnyi slovnyk inshomovnykh sliv / [uklad. L. I. Nechvolod]. – Kh.: PP «Torsinh plius», 2007. – 768 s. 8. Telyia V. N. Vtorychnaia nomynatsyia y ee vydû / V. N. Telyia // Yazûkovaia nomynatsyia: Vydû naymenovanyi / A. A. Ufymtsev, Ý. S. Aznaurova, V. N. Telyia y dr. – M., 1977. – S. 129–222. 9. Tlumachnyi rosiisko-ukrainsko-anhliiskyi slovnyk iz protykoroziinoho zakhystu hazoprovodiv / [uklad. M. D. Hinzburh, M. V. Chernets, I. M. Kornilovska ta in.]. – Kh. : B. v., 2000. – 616 s. 10. Ukrainsko-rosiiskyi slovnyk terminiv silskohospodarskoi tekhniky / [uklad. : T. M. Zembinska, I. V. Morozov, V. V. Dubichynskyi]. – Kh. : B. v., 2004. – 222 s. 11. Tsyfrovi merezhi ta systemy telekomunikatsii : tlumach. slov. / [uklad. Z. D. Konoplianko]. – K. : In-t system. doslid. osvity Ukrainy, 1994. – 60 s. 12. Tsyfrovi merezhi ta systemy telekomunikatsii : tlumach. slov. / [uklad. Z. D. Konoplianko]. – K. : In-t system. doslid. osvity Ukrainy, 1994. – 60 s.