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of L'viv Polytechnic National University
"Problems of Ukrainian Terminology"
Petrova T. Synonymy and antonymy in Ukrainian phytoameliorative terminology in special dictionaries of early XXI century // Website of TC STTS: Herald of L'viv Polynechnic National University "Problems of Ukrainian Terminology". – 2014. – # 791.
Kharkiv national agrarian university named after V. V. Dockuchajev
SYNONYMY AND ANTONYMY IN UKRAINIAN PHYTOAMELIORATIVE TERMINOLOGY IN SPECIAL DICTIONARIES OF EARLY XXI CENTURY
© Petrova Ò. Î., 2014
The urgent problems of synonymy and antonymy in the phytoameliorative system are considered; synonyms and antonyms are characterized by different criteria (structure, concept-semantics, morphology); the correlation between synonymous and antonymous relations in the terminology of phytoamelioration is studied.
Keywords: Ukrainian language, term, terminological unit, terminological system, synonymous relation, antonymous relation, special dictionary.
Urgent problems of synonymy and antonymy in the phytoameliorative system are considered in the article. A classification of synonyms according to the level of absolute identity of meaning is presented: absolute and partial synonyms. It has been established that absolute synonyms dominate (those whose meanings are identical); the partial ones can form hyperonym-hyponym relations. The structure of synonymous terms is analyzed: it can be synthetic and analytical. The following models of synonyms are defined: multicomponent term – one-component term (the model of “proper Ukrainian term – borrowed term” is regarded separately), multicomponent term – multicomponent term; multicomponent term – abbreviation. It has been established that the emergence of abbreviated synonyms in the phytoameliorative branch is caused by the necessity to replace terms or term combinations with their shortened form. A group of terms containing the synonyms for only one component of a term combination is distinguished. It has been established that a rather high level of synonymy (4.4% of the total number of units) is characteristic of phytoameliorative terminology at the stage of its formation (late 20th – early 21st century).
It has been established that antonymous relations in the terminological system of phytoamelioration emerge between units denoting features, qualities and properties; in terms of parts of speech, antonymy in phytoameliorative terminology is represented by nouns, adjectives and participles. Antonymous synthetic terms are characterized by the plain of expression (by the number of root morphemes (simple and compound), by the quality (similarity) of root morphemes (one-root, multi-root and mixed ones), in terms of parts of speech (nominative) and by origin (proper Ukrainian and borrowed ones – internationalisms). Antonymous analytical terminological units are analyzed by the quantity of components –2, 3, 4 and 5 components (the prevalence of 2-component terms is registered); by the quantity of root morphemes – simple opposing components; complex components, simple components opposed to complex ones and vice versa. It has been established that opposing components in analytical terms can consist of 1 or more roots and that by origin they can be native, borrowed or native and borrowed.
Various types of terminological antonymous oppositions (TAO) are singled out: by conceptual and semantic contacts – contrary (between opposite concepts only 1 or more intermediate concepts exist), contradictory (one antonym denies the distinctive seme in the plain of content of the other antonym, but doesn’t replace it), complementary (antonyms denote 2 mutually complementary hyponym concepts which together form a hyperonym concept without intermediate links, vector (antonyms denote 2 oppositely directed or mutually opposite actions, phenomena, features, relations, etc.), coordinate (antonyms denote 2 opposite points of a certain space or time segment); by the amount of opposed semantics of TAO members – complete.
A close connection between synonymous and antonymous relations in phytomelioration terminology is observed, which proves that it is a well-organized system. The antonymy of synonymous rows, or synonymy of antonymic oppositions, has been discovered.